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IMG BORDER=1 style=

CASTLE IN GOLANCZ, AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST



he first writ­ten men­tion of Go­lanch da­tes back to 1222, when it ap­pe­a­red in do­cu­ments as a vil­la­ge pay­ing tit­hes to the Cis­ter­cian mo­nas­te­ry in Lek­no. In the 14th cen­tu­ry, du­ring the reign of Wla­dys­law Lo­kie­tek, the set­tle­ment be­lon­ged to the no­ble fa­mi­ly of Pa­lu­ki and pro­bab­ly one of its re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ves built a small for­ti­fi­ca­tion on the banks of La­ke Smo­la­ry. This foun­da­tion is u­su­al­ly at­tri­bu­ted by his­to­rians to the bis­hop of Wlo­cla­wek, Ma­ciej Pa­lu­ka (+1368), al­though it can­not be ex­clu­ded that the nep­hew of this dig­ni­ta­ry, who in­he­ri­ted the es­ta­te from him, To­mis­law of Go­lancz (+~1380), a Ka­lisz jud­ge, was in­vol­ved. The ex­is­ten­ce of the Go­lancz cas­trum in the se­cond half of the 14th cen­tu­ry is des­cri­bed in a frag­ment of the so-cal­led Do­pel­nie­nie Sza­mo­tul­skie from 1383, whe­re the au­thor men­tions o­ne of the eight sons of To­mis­law, Ja­kub Kusz (+ be­fo­re 1424) as the ow­ner or co-ow­ner of the fa­mi­ly es­ta­te: [...] The ot­her e­ne­mies ha­ve ar­ri­ved: Wierz­bie­ta from Smo­gu­lec, Ja­kub Kusz from Go­lancz and all the ot­her ow­ners of the­se cast­les, which are wit­hin the bor­ders of Sa­xo­ny, that is, Uj­scie, Ba­bi­most, Zba­szyn and ma­ny ot­hers. This re­cord, ho­we­ver, on­ly hy­pot­he­ti­cal­ly in­di­ca­tes the fact that a brick strong­hold was ex­ist­ing in this pe­riod, al­though of cour­se it does not ex­clu­de such a sce­na­rio. Cer­tain­ly, ho­we­ver, we can talk a­bout the lo­ca­tion of the town, which took pla­ce du­ring the life of the a­fo­re­men­tio­ned Ja­kub, be­cau­se in 1399 for the first ti­me in the sour­ces Go­lancz bour­ge­oi­sie ap­pe­a­red.


IMG BORDER=1 style=

VIEW OF THE RUINS FROM THE SIDE OF THE SMOLARY LAKE


fter the death of Ja­kub Kusz, the town and the cas­tle pro­bab­ly be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of his sons: Mi­chal (+1464) and An­drzej (+ be­fo­re 1471), who in 1450 we­re cer­tain­ly the on­ly ow­ners of the for­tress, as we learn from a do­cu­ment sanc­tio­ning the sha­ring of the pro­per­ty be­tween the brot­hers. This do­cu­ment, which is the ol­dest sur­vi­ving proof of the ex­is­ten­ce of a brick cas­tle, des­cri­bes in de­tail the spa­tial ar­ran­ge­ment of the cas­tle es­ta­te and pre­sents its first in­ven­to­ry: So the pre­sent no­ble Mi­chal Go­la­niec­ki was not for­ced to do so, and so on. (Re­cei­ves) The who­le of its half of the Go­lancz castle, which is clo­ser to the fo­rest, half of the hou­se, which is lo­ca­ted in the mid­dle of the cas­tle, in which half of the hou­se should ma­ke the en­tran­ce, in its part and ma­ke the door in the hou­se this. And (re­cei­ves) half of the di­kes, which half lies near the fo­rests. And the sho­re of the la­ke, which is to ser­ve both si­des for wa­te­ring hor­ses. And half of the ga­tes, which are now, or will be built af­ter­wards - the­se two si­des ha­ve to ser­ve. (And re­cei­ves) Half of the la­ke, which lies next to the wall, al­so cal­led "Przy­gró­dek". The old hou­se, which is next to the wall, and the bre­we­ry. And half of the ma­nor hou­se, which is in front of the cas­tle, and half of the for­mer land cal­led Gwin­na, which is lo­ca­ted near the big or­chard. And half the gar­den that's ly­ing next to the big or­chard. And half of the la­ke by the cas­tle. And the spa­ce cal­led "Squa­re" bet­ween the la­ke and the old hou­se and em­bank­ment, which is to ser­ve both si­des. And no one el­se is to be used. The ro­ad le­a­ding to the cas­tle is in­ten­ded to be u­sed by both si­des. The ma­yor's of­fi­ce is to be u­sed by Mr. Mi­chal for one year and Mr. An­drzej for the ot­her. And so this year it be­gins to ser­ve Mr. Mi­chal first.


IMG BORDER=1 style=

CASTLE IN GOLANCZ, AERIAL VIEW FROM THE EAST


hen the first of the Go­la­niec­cy brot­hers, Mi­chal, died in 1464, the east­ern part of the cas­tle was in­he­ri­ted by his daug­hters Bar­ba­ra and Mal­go­rza­ta, and then as a re­sult of Mal­go­rza­ta's mar­ria­ge with Ma­ciej Gru­dzin­ski (+1513) half of the pro­per­ty be­ca­me his own. The di­vis­ion of the pro­per­ty, which fol­lo­wed the death of Mi­chal and his daugh­ters' mar­ria­ge, led to the si­tu­a­tion that in the 60s and 70s of the 15th cen­tu­ry the cas­tle could be in­ha­bi­ted by up to three nob­le fa­mil­ies. On­ly af­ter the death of An­drzej Kusz, the se­cond of the Go­la­niec­cy brot­hers, Ma­ciej's fat­her bought the west­ern part from An­na Kusz, and a few years la­ter - bought half of the east­ern part from Win­cen­ty from Ska­pe, so that from 1479 opi­di et for­ta­li­ci Go­lan­cza be­lon­ged en­ti­re­ly to the Gru­dzin­ski fa­mi­ly. Ma­ciej Gru­dzin­ski, who held lu­cra­ti­ve of­fi­ces as the cas­tel­lan of Mie­dzy­chód, and la­ter as the cas­tel­lan of Byd­goszcz, un­doub­ted­ly had con­si­de­ra­ble funds for the mo­der­ni­za­tion of his fa­mi­ly's head­quar­ters, which he pro­bab­ly took ad­van­ta­ge of by sur­roun­ding it with a li­ne of de­fen­si­ve walls with a ga­te and cy­lin­dri­cal to­wer in the north-west­ern part of the com­plex. Af­ter his death, the cas­tle es­ta­te and the town be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of four sons: Woj­ciech (+ be­fo­re 1540), Waw­rzy­niec (+~1544), Zyg­munt (+ af­ter 1552) and An­drzej (+ be­fo­re 1562), and then they we­re fur­ther dis­per­sed as a re­sult of com­pli­ca­ted tran­sac­tions and fa­mi­ly con­nec­tions. As a con­seq­uen­ce, in the mid­dle of the 16th cen­tu­ry the cas­tle in Go­lancz was di­vi­ded bet­ween two or e­ven three ow­ners, in­clu­ding Jan Czar­no­tul­ski (+1571), who pur­cha­sed part of the for­tress from the heirs of Wa­wrzy­niec Gru­dzin­ski, and Ulys­ses (+ be­fo­re 1589), the son of Woj­ciech Gru­dzin­ski. The des­cen­dants of the­se two no­ble­men li­ved in the cas­tle un­til the be­gin­ning of the se­cond de­ca­de of the 17th cen­tu­ry, when An­na Gro­dzic­ka be­ca­me in­te­res­ted in the­se pro­per­ties, buy­ing both the Czar­no­tul­ski fa­mi­ly pro­per­ty and the part be­lon­ging to the Gru­dzin­ski fa­mi­ly.


CASTLE ON E. RACZYNSKI'S DRAWING FROM 1843, MEMORIES OF WIELKOPOLSKA


n 1619 Jan Smo­gu­lec­ki (+1632) bought from An­na Gro­dzic­ka a vast es­ta­te with a cas­tle, a ma­nor farm, a 'town' and se­ve­ral ot­her vil­la­ges for a sum of 30,000 zlo­tys. The­se es­ta­tes we­re in­he­ri­ted by the sons Jan Ol­bracht (+1650) and Ma­ciej (+1644), and af­ter the child­less death of the se­cond one, the on­ly heir to the fa­mi­ly for­tu­ne and the ow­ner of the for­tress be­ca­me the first brot­her, the ro­yal se­cre­ta­ry Jan Ol­bracht. Jan had two daugh­ters and four sons, who af­ter his death di­vi­ded the es­ta­te bet­ween them­selves and the mot­her, then cal­led Gru­dzin­ska, af­ter she re­mar­ried Sta­nis­law Gru­dzin­ski, the sta­rost of Ro­goz­no. Shor­tly af­ter­wards, in 1655, the Swe­dish ar­my in­va­ded Po­land, be­gin­ning a short but de­vas­ta­ting pe­riod of oc­cu­pa­tion, loot­ing and mur­ders. It en­ded tra­gi­cal­ly al­so for the cas­tle, whe­re on May 3, 1656, a Swe­dish hor­se u­nit led by a cer­tain Bu­low, ar­med with four can­nons, fi­red at the for­tress, blew up the brid­ge and the ga­te, and when the in­va­ders we­re suc­ces­sful in bre­a­king in­to it, they mur­de­red the en­ti­re crew of the cas­tle, pro­ba­bly not spa­red a­ny­o­ne who took shel­ter wit­hin its walls: When the king mo­ved to To­run, Prin­ce Adolf John tur­ned to Znin... The prin­ce on his way to Mo­gil­no was in­for­med that the ow­ner of the ne­ar­by Go­lancz cas­tle, with a cer­tain a­mount of no­bi­li­ty and 200 pe­a­sants, was plot­ting a­gainst the Swe­des. So he sent a troop to tem­per them. Cal­led to sur­ren­der, they loc­ked them­sel­ves in the cas­tle and im­me­dia­te­ly star­ted shoot­ing and woun­ded se­ve­ral sol­diers. So four guns we­re brought in im­me­dia­te­ly, which smash­ed the ga­te, and the Swe­des hur­ried­ly ran in and pre­ven­ted the brid­ge from being blown up. They lo­we­red the draw­brid­ge, fell in­to the cas­tle and cut out tho­se who we­re ar­med.... In a no­te quo­ted by the Ger­man his­to­rian Sa­mu­el Pu­fen­dorf, who was at the ser­vi­ce of the oc­cu­pa­tion for­ces, the Swe­des mur­de­red on­ly tho­se who we­re ar­med, but in re­a­li­ty pro­bab­ly all the de­fen­ders of the cas­tle (bet­ween 200 and 500 pe­o­ple), in­clu­ding wo­men and chil­dren, we­re kil­led, as evi­den­ced by the wit­nes­ses. The­se dra­ma­tic test­imo­nies ha­ve been con­fir­med by ar­cha­e­o­lo­gi­cal re­search car­ried out in 2010, com­bi­ned with the ex­hu­ma­tion of the bo­dies of Swe­dish mur­der vic­tims (see be­low for mo­re de­tails).


DRAWING MADE BY K. MACKOWSKI WITH THE IMAGE OF THE CASTLE IN GOLANCZ, 1887



Du­ring ar­cha­eolo­gi­cal re­se­arch car­ried out in the cas­tle in 2010, a mass gra­ve da­ting back to the mid­dle of the 17th cen­tu­ry was dis­co­ve­red in the area of the for­mer court­yard, in which 25 ske­le­tons we­re iden­ti­fied, ar­ran­ged in a dis­or­der, de­pri­ved of clot­hing and per­so­nal items, which may in­di­ca­te dis­res­pect for the corp­ses and their loot­ing. Among them, six ske­le­tons be­lon­ged to wo­men, two to ju­ve­ni­les, and one to a child a­ged 3-4 years. From a­mong the found re­mains, as ma­ny as eight ca­ses of let­hal da­ma­ge cau­sed by sharp or blunt in­stru­ments or bul­let marks we­re re­por­ted, and one of the skulls ha­ving 13 wounds cau­sed by a sharp in­stru­ment. The dis­co­ve­ry ma­de by re­se­ar­chers from Poz­nan and Lódz un­doub­ted­ly re­fers to the e­vents of 3 May 1656, con­fir­ming the bes­tia­li­ty of the Swe­dish oc­cu­pants.

On No­vem­ber 7, 2016, a grand fu­ne­ral ce­re­mo­ny took pla­ce at the ce­me­te­ry at Sw. Waw­rzy­niec Church. Du­ring the ce­re­mo­ny, 25 cof­fins con­tai­ning the found re­mains of the de­fen­ders of the Go­lanc cas­tle we­re bur­ied in the gra­ves.




CASTLE ON A BEAUTIFUL COLOURED PHOTOGRAPH FROM THE FIRST DECADE OF THE XX CENTURY


uring the Swe­dish at­tack on the cas­tle, the sub-cas­tle was des­tro­yed, but the sout­hern part of the pe­rip­he­ral wall was al­so de­mo­lis­hed, which was ne­ver re­built a­gain. Hu­ge de­vas­ta­tion in the pro­per­ty and great los­ses in po­pu­la­tion, as well as the death of the re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ves of the fa­mi­ly of the ow­ners of the Go­lancz es­ta­te, cau­sed that af­ter the with­dra­wal of the Swe­des from Wiel­ko­pol­ska, the de­vas­ta­ted strong­hold re­mai­ned un­in­ha­bi­ted for so­me ti­me. Its re­con­struc­tion pro­bab­ly took pla­ce at the end of the third quar­ter of the 17th cen­tu­ry on the ini­tia­ti­ve of Fran­ci­szek Smo­gu­lec­ki (+1701), son of Jan Ol­bracht. The works he un­der­took chan­ged the raw cha­rac­ter of the re­si­den­tial to­wer, gi­ving it the fe­a­tu­res ty­pi­cal for mo­dern re­si­den­ces of that per­iod. Apart from the re­no­va­tion and re­con­struc­tion of the main hou­se and the in­tro­duc­tion of a new ba­ro­que ga­te, a num­ber of buil­dings ma­de of pe­rish­ab­le ma­ter­ials we­re built, which in the in­ven­to­ries from the se­cond de­ca­de of the eigh­teenth cen­tu­ry al­re­ady pre­sent them­sel­ves as he­a­vi­ly neg­lec­ted. A few ye­ars af­ter Fran­ci­szek's de­ath, his wi­dow, Ka­ta­rzy­na Smo­gu­lec­ka re­mar­ried and mo­ved to Smo­gu­lec, and le­a­sed the cas­tle and the ma­nor farm to Ka­zi­mierz Tur­no. At that ti­me, the Nort­hern War, which be­gan in 1700, was mo­re and mo­re se­ve­re­ly af­fec­ting Go­lancz and its sur­round­ings, and the ac­com­pan­ying e­pi­de­mics led to the e­co­no­mic col­lap­se of the re­gion, which had an im­pact on the in­fras­truc­tu­re of the for­tress, which in a re­la­ti­ve­ly short pe­riod of ti­me si­gni­fi­can­tly de­cli­ned.



AN IMAGE OF THE GOLANCZ CASTLE IN THE 1915 ENGRAVINGS OF Z. SWIATOPELK-SLUPSKI


n 1720 the pro­per­ty was ow­ned by ca­val­ry ge­ne­ral Jo­a­chim Fry­de­ryk, Count Fle­ming (+1740), who bought it from the heirs of Fran­ci­szek Smo­gu­lec­ki for al­most a quar­ter of a mil­lion Po­lish zlo­tys. Ho­we­ver, he got rid of this pro­per­ty by sel­ling it for an iden­ti­cal a­mount to Count Jan Prze­ben­dow­ski (+1728). This tran­sac­tion was ac­com­pa­nied by the pre­pa­ra­tion of a com­pre­hen­si­ve in­ven­to­ry of the Go­lancz cas­tle and its pro­per­ty, which is now a va­lu­ab­le sour­ce of in­for­ma­tion on its con­dit­ion and e­quip­ment in the third de­ca­de of the 18th cen­tu­ry. Go­lancz did not stay in the hands of the Prze­ben­dow­ski fa­mi­ly for long, be­cau­se al­re­a­dy in 1730 as its ow­ner the­re is a Ma­ciej from Ko­na­ry Ma­le­chow­ski, and from 1739 - his wi­dow Ma­rian­na from Go­lin­scy Ma­le­chow­ska (+1746). Fi­nal­ly, the Ma­le­chow­scy dis­po­sed of this pro­per­ty a year af­ter Ma­rian­na's death, when her heirs sold it to Jó­zef Za­ja­czek.


PHOTOGRAPH FROM THE TIME OF GERMAN OCCUPATION DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR


fter 1754, Go­lancz and the ad­ja­cent vil­la­ges we­re kept by the sta­rost of Walcz and Wscho­wa cham­ber­lain Ma­ciej Miel­zyn­ski (+1797), fol­lo­wed by Mak­sy­mil­ian Miel­zyn­ski (+1799), who no lon­ger li­ved in the cas­tle, but in his mag­ni­fi­cent re­si­den­ce in Paw­lo­wi­ce. This one star­ted to be u­sed as a sto­re­hou­se, per­haps al­so as a bre­we­ry, and on one of the floors a flat was ar­ran­ged for the ad­mi­nis­tra­tor of the lo­cal es­ta­te. Af­ter the death of Sta­nis­law Miel­zyn­ski, son of Mak­sy­mil­ian, in 1826 the fa­mi­ly es­ta­te be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of one of his daugh­ters Ele­o­no­ra-Lau­ra (+1875), and soon af­ter­wards it was in­cor­po­ra­ted in­to the es­ta­te of Ka­rol Czar­nec­ki (+1888), an im­po­ve­ris­hed Count, who mo­ved from Wo­lyn to Wiel­ko­pol­ska and in 1836 mar­ried Lau­ra. Count Ka­rol show­ed great in­te­rest in the cas­tle and its his­to­ry, and e­ven plan­ned its sty­lish re­con­struc­tion. Ho­we­ver, not­hing ca­me of the­se plans, as Lau­ra's hus­band was soon ac­cu­sed of ho­mo­sex­u­a­li­ty, which for­ced him to es­ca­pe ab­road. He lost then his right to the pro­per­ty, af­ter be­ing cap­tu­red and di­vor­ced from Ele­o­no­ra he was for­ced to spend two years in pri­son, and the rest of his li­fe - in iso­la­tion in his es­ta­tes in Chwa­li­sze­wo. In 1850 Ele­o­no­ra-Lau­ra re­mar­ried Jó­zef Na­po­le­on Hut­ten-Czap­ski (+1852) and mo­ved to Smo­gu­lec. From that ti­me on, the Go­lancz cas­tle was u­sed on­ly for e­co­no­mic pur­po­ses as a sto­re­hou­se in the back of the ma­nor farm, which sig­ni­fi­can­tly wor­se­ned its con­dit­ion. In 1910-11 the son of Ele­o­no­ra, Bog­dan Fran­ci­szek, Count Hut­ten-Czap­ski (+1937), un­der­took so­me re­no­va­tion works, but they did not stop the pro­cess of de­vas­ta­tion of the for­mer Got­hic for­tress, which soon af­ter­wards tur­ned in­to ruin. Du­ring the Ger­man Na­zi oc­cu­pa­tion the first ar­cha­e­o­lo­gi­cal works we­re car­ried out on its ter­ri­to­ry, and in 1951-53 the walls of the cas­tle we­re se­cu­red and res­to­red. In 1989 the mo­nu­ment pas­sed in­to pri­va­te hands, but due to the ra­pid­ly de­te­rio­ra­ting con­dit­ion of the ruins and lack of in­te­rest by the ow­ner li­ving in the U.S. a few ye­ars ago it was ta­ken o­ver by the mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ty.



VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE WEST IN THE 60S XX CENTURY AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CURRENT CENTURY



he ol­dest and most im­pres­si­ve e­le­ment of the Got­hic cas­tle was a brick don­jon, a re­si­den­tial to­wer, built pro­bab­ly in the pla­ce of an ol­der wood­en re­si­den­ce no ear­lier than in the 3rd quar­ter of the 14th cen­tu­ry and no la­ter than in the 2nd quar­ter of the 15th cen­tu­ry. It is a fi­ve-sto­rey buil­ding on sto­ne foun­dat­ions with si­des of 11x16.6 met­res, whe­re first three sto­reys we­re built, then the work was stop­ped - pos­sib­ly as a re­sult of fi­re - and con­ti­nu­ed la­ter, as evi­den­ced by the use of sligh­tly dif­fe­rent buil­ding ma­ter­ials in the up­per part of the to­wer. The sta­bi­li­ty of the walls was en­su­red by the po­wer­ful brick but­tres­ses clin­ging to the to­wer in each cor­ner. The en­tran­ce to the cas­tle hal­lway led from the north through an arch-sha­ped por­tal em­bed­ded in a 2-met­re wi­de and 10-met­re high re­cess, in the si­des of which the­re we­re grooves for the har­row clo­sing the ga­te o­pe­ning. O­ri­gi­nal­ly it was lo­ca­ted hig­her than pre­sen­tly in re­la­tion to the le­vel of the ground, and the en­tran­ce to it led through a brid­ge, pro­bab­ly a draw­bridge, over a cas­tle moat. On the op­po­si­te si­de, on the sout­hern e­le­va­tion on the le­vel of the fourth sto­rey, a la­tri­ne was built. It was ac­ces­sib­le di­rec­tly from the lar­ge hall, which was pro­bab­ly part of the pri­va­te liv­ing spa­ce of the ow­ners, oc­cu­py­ing the first and se­cond floors of the to­wer. The cel­lars and ground floor we­re sup­po­sed to ha­ve sto­ra­ge and ser­vi­ce func­tions, as well as the high­est, fifth le­vel, which ad­dit­io­nal­ly ser­ved as a pla­ce of ob­ser­va­tion and de­fen­se. The in­ter­iors on each floor of the cas­tle had a three- or four-spa­ce la­yout, ex­cept for the last floor, whe­re the­re was no such di­vis­ion at all, but with the pas­sa­ge of ti­me and the ap­pe­a­ran­ce of new ow­ners, and with them new needs and ide­as for the ar­ran­ge­ment of spa­ce in­si­de the to­wer, the­se di­vi­sions we­re sub­ject to freq­uent chan­ges. The rooms we­re op­ti­cal­ly en­lar­ged by cut­ting out win­dow ni­ches in the walls and co­ve­red with wood­en cei­lings, and the en­ti­re buil­ding was top­ped with a four-si­ded roof. In the ini­tial pha­se, the de­fen­si­ve cha­rac­ter of the foun­da­tion was en­su­ed by a sto­ne and clay em­bank­ment with wood­en e­le­ments and na­tu­ral ob­stac­les in the form of a la­ke and wet la­ke­si­de are­as.





RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THE XV-CENTURY CASTLE ACCORDING TO J. SALM (ABOVE) AND H. JOHANNES (BELOW)


round 1450, or a lit­tle ear­lier, the con­struc­tion of the outer pe­ri­me­ter walls, clo­sing an area of 870 squa­re me­ters, was star­ted. From the north-east it was flan­ked by a cy­lin­dri­cal to­wer with a dia­me­ter of 5 me­ters, and in the mid­dle of the wes­tern sec­tion it ad­dit­io­nal­ly in­su­red the shoot­ing post. The li­ne of walls for­med the a­rea sur­round­ing the to­wer and se­pa­ra­ted the main part of the cas­tle from the sub-cas­tle that had its pro­tec­ti­ve ram­parts le­vel­led out and most of the a­rea was pa­ved with cob­ble­sto­ne. It was re­a­ched by a ga­te­way built on the ex­ten­sion of the west­ern cur­tain, ac­ces­sib­le from the out­si­de from the brid­ge o­ver the moat. The la­tri­ne pla­ced in the to­wer's façade was ex­ten­ded to the form of a dan­sker and led out of the sout­hern wall li­ne, to­wards the la­ke. The cas­tle was sup­por­ted by a sub-cas­tle cal­led from la­tin an­te­mur­ium, clo­sed from the north with a brick wall, and from the ot­her si­des with a mo­at and the wa­ters of La­ke Smo­la­ry. On its ter­ri­to­ry stood, among ot­hers, the sta­bles of the ow­ners of Go­lancz.


THE NORTHERN ELEVATION OF THE RESIDENTIAL TOWER ACCORDING TO J. SKURATOWICZ



CROSS-SECTION NORTH-SOUTH OF THE XV-CENTURY CASTLE ACCORDING TO H. JOHANESS


s a re­sult of the Swe­dish in­va­sion in 1656, the sout­hern cur­tain of the wall was des­tro­yed and soon af­ter­wards it was dis­man­tled to cre­a­te a lar­ge 'pa­ra­de' court­yard with an a­rea of a­bout 2100 squa­re me­­ters. It was not for­ti­fied ex­cept for a part of the wes­tern cur­tain, whe­re a new Ba­ro­que ga­te­way was e­rec­ted in the pla­ce of the Got­hic ga­te. Its sout­hern si­de was ad­joi­ned by a 14x8 me­ter kit­chen and a ken­nel, and from the north-east by a hou­se ser­ving as a guard­hou­se. The east­ern part of the court­yard was o­pe­ned by a ma­nor hou­se from the si­de of the la­ke, and fur­ther to the north - a lar­ge cas­tle hou­se built on a rec­tan­gu­lar plan with si­des of 7x19 me­ters. In the nort­hern part of the com­plex, be­hind the mo­at arch, the­re was a lar­ge gar­den, whi­le the east­ern and west­ern parts we­re oc­cu­pied by a ma­nor farm and a cas­tle bre­we­ry. Sig­ni­fi­cant chan­ges al­so oc­cur­red in the de­co­ra­tion and func­tio­nal lay­out of the cas­tle to­wer, in which new rec­tan­gu­lar win­dows we­re cre­a­ted, the dan­sker at the sout­hern e­le­va­tion was dis­man­tled and the toi­lets we­re mo­ved to the less ex­po­sed east­ern part. The de­fen­si­ve porch sur­round­ing the to­wer on the fourth floor le­vel was al­so re­mo­ved, and in the sout­hern part of the main wal­ls a brick an­nex with stairs le­a­ding to the se­cond floor was ad­ded, as shown in the fi­gu­re by Ed­ward Ra­czyn­ski from 1843.


THE PRESENT PLAN OF THE CASTLE AND ITS RELICS, T. OLSZACKI, A RÓZANSKI DZIEJE ZAMKU W GOLANCZY: 1. DONJON, 2. NORTHWESTERN TURRET,
3. ENTRANCE PORTAL, 4. ANNEX (NONEXISTENT), 5. DANSKER (FOUNDATIONS UNDERGROUND), 6. SOUTHERN WALL (FOUNDATIONS UNDERGROUND),
7. GATE, 8. GUARDHOUSE (FOUNDATIONS UNDERGROUND), 9. KITCHEN (FOUNDATIONS UNDERGROUND), 10. EASTERN HOUSE (FOUNDATIONS
UNDERGROUND), 11. MANOR HOUSE (FOUNDATIONS UNDERGROUND), 12. PLACE OF THE MASS GRAVE OF THE DEFENDERS OF THE CASTLE



o the pre­sent day, the to­wer hou­se has been pre­ser­ved in good con­dit­ion, re­cen­tly co­ve­red with a new roof, as well as the west­ern and nort­hern sec­tions of the wall with the re­lics of the cor­ner to­wer and the par­tial­ly re­con­struc­ted en­tran­ce ga­te. The farm buil­dings of the cas­tle, the foun­dat­ions of which are now hid­den un­der­ground, ha­ve not sur­vi­ved. Si­tu­a­ted on the sho­res of the Smo­la­ry La­ke, the cas­tle of­fers a gra­ce­ful view from the si­de­walk a­long its sout­hern walls, which to­get­her with the par­king pla­ce, light­ing and e­le­ments of small ar­chi­tec­tu­re are the ef­fect of the re­vi­ta­li­za­tion of the im­me­dia­te sur­roun­dings of the for­tress, which took pla­ce a few years ago. The ac­cess to its in­ter­ior is pro­tec­ted by a fen­ce clo­sing the a­rea from the south and east, ho­we­ver, due to the dis­pu­ta­ble tight­ness of this hed­ge the pro­tec­tion is rat­her sym­bo­lic (in 2019).


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SOUTHERN ELEVATION OF THE TOWER / RECONSTRUCTED FRAGMENT OF THE BAROQUE ENTRANCE GATE TO THE CASTLE


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CASTLE ON THE SECOND FLOOR (3TH LEVEL), VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST


few ye­ars ago in­for­ma­tion ap­pe­a­red a­bout the pre­pa­ra­tions of the mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ty for a tho­rough res­to­ra­tion of the cas­tle, which ac­cor­ding to the plan should in­clu­de the re­no­va­tion of the to­wer, re­buil­ding of the an­nex con­tai­ning the stair­ca­se, re­con­struc­tion of the east­ern part of the wall and al­so re­con­struc­tion of the pa­ve­ment sur­fa­ce of the cas­tle court­yard. If the mu­ni­ci­pa­li­ty suc­ceeds in rai­sing the funds to a­chie­ve this am­bit­ious goal, the cas­tle will be­co­me the seat of a mu­se­um and a cul­tu­ral cen­tre.


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THE CASTLE IN GOLANCZ - SITUATION IN 2019 / GOTHIC PORTAL IN THE NORTHERN ELEVATION OF THE TOWER



olancz is lo­ca­ted a­bout 80 km north of Poz­nan. It is ac­ces­sib­le by rail­way and bu­ses from Wa­gro­wiec, Poz­nan and Byd­goszcz. The cas­tle stands in the south­east­ern part of the town, east of the Mar­ket Squa­re and a­bout 300 me­ters south of the rail­way sta­tion. Ne­ar­by, on Zam­ko­wa Street, the­re is a small free par­king for cars. (map of cas­tles in Wiel­ko­pols­ka pro­vin­ce)




1. B. Guerquin: Zamki w Polsce, Arkady 1984
2. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kolodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
3. L. Kajzer: Male czy duze, czyli o tzw. zamkach rycerskich na Nizu Polskim
4. P. Lasek: Zamki elity monarchii Andegawenów po obu stronach Karpat. Próba wstepnej charakterystyki...
5. T. Olszacki, A. Rozanski: Zamek w Golanczy, Golaniecki Osrodek Kultury 2015
6. T. Olszacki, A. Rozanski: Badania terenowe zamkow z obszaru Wielkopolski i Polski Centralnej w XXI wieku
7. J. Skuratowicz: O najstarszych prywatnych zamkach w Wielkopolsce


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PICTURESQUE VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE SOUTHERN SHORE OF THE LAKE SMOLARY


Castles nearby:
Grocholin - fortified manor house XVIth century, 10 km
Szubin - the ruins of a knight's castle XIVth century, 33 km




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text: 2019
photographs: 2019
© by Jacek Bednarek