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IMG BORDER=1 style=

CASTLE IN NIEMODLIN, VIEW FROM THE NORTH



he origins of the castle in Niemodlin, which is currently one of the lar­gest and best pre­ser­ved me­die­val re­si­den­ces in the Opo­le re­gion, da­te back to the per­iod be­fo­re 1228, that is be­fo­re the hand­over of the set­tle­ment by Ka­zi­mierz I (d. 1230) to Kle­mens Gry­fi­ta (d. 1241) as a com­pen­sa­tion for the fi­nan­cial ef­fort ma­de by Gry­fi­ta whi­le buil­ding the du­cal re­si­den­ce in Opo­le. Its ap­pe­aran­ce in the first half of the 13th cen­tu­ry, ho­we­ver, did not re­sem­ble con­tem­po­ra­ry buil­dings; the ori­gi­nal form of the fort­ress was on­ly a small to­wer of re­si­den­tial and de­fen­si­ve cha­ra­cter, sur­roun­ded by a mo­at and wood­en for­ti­fi­ca­tions. Si­tu­ated ne­ar the ri­ver cros­sing, it ser­ved main­ly as a cen­tre of lo­cal ad­mi­ni­stra­tion and a toll col­le­ction point on the tra­de rou­te le­ading from Si­le­sia to Mo­ra­via. In the vi­ci­ni­ty of the to­wer the­re was a du­cal vil­la­ge, la­ter be­lon­ging to the Be­ne­di­cti­ne mo­na­ste­ry in Sta­niąt­ki, first men­tio­ned in 1224 as Ne­mo­dli­na vil­la. A fair set­tle­ment de­ve­lo­ped from it, and then the town, which has been cal­led Fal­ken­berg as a re­sult of the in­cre­asing num­ber of Ger­man set­tlers. Its lo­ca­tion, da­ting back to the per­iod be­tween 1260 and 1283, is con­nec­ted with the con­stru­ction of a se­cond re­si­den­tial to­wer, erec­ted on the ini­tia­ti­ve of Wła­dy­sław Opol­ski (d. 1281/82) on the si­te of an earl­ier one da­ted to the first half of the 13th cen­tu­ry. This in­vest­ment was pro­ba­bly con­nec­ted with or­ga­ni­sa­tion of the Ca­stel­la­ny of Nie­mo­dlin, who­se first ad­mi­ni­stra­tor known from sour­ces was a cer­tain Syg­hard (1294).


IMG BORDER=1 style=

NORTH-WEST ELEVATION OF THE CASTLE



According to linguists, the Slavic name Niemodlin is derived from the na­me of first ow­ner of the vil­la­ge, which in the form of Nie­mo­dl-im could be as­so­cia­ted with ne­ga­tion of the word mo­dlić się (eng. pray). In the se­cond half of the 13th cen­tu­ry, with the ar­ri­val of Ger­man-spe­aking po­pu­la­tion, the term Fal­ken­berg be­gan to do­mi­na­te he­re, re­fer­ring to the town's co­at of arms and seek­ing con­fir­ma­tion in the fal­con­ry cen­tre, which was sup­po­sed to exist on this land in the past. In the fol­lo­wing cen­tur­ies Po­lish and Ger­man na­mes fun­ctio­ned al­ter­na­te­ly or in pa­ral­lel, and their pro­nun­cia­tion and spel­ling we­re of­ten dis­tor­ted, in­clu­ding Yal­kin­berg (1318), Val­kin­berg (1368), Fal­kin­berg (1370) or Fal­ken­berg-Nie­mo­din (1819).



IMG BORDER=1 style=

IN THE CASTLE COURTYARD, 2020


fter death of Bolesław I in 1313, his three sons Bo­le­sław (d. be­fo­re 1365), Bo­le­sław (d. 1356) and Al­bert (d. be­fo­re 1375) di­vi­ded the Opo­le dis­trict a­mong them­sel­ves, which led to se­pa­ra­tion of the small Du­chy of Nie­mo­dlin. It was ta­ken o­ver by the ol­dest son, Bo­le­sław Pier­wo­rod­ny (the First­born), hen­ce­forth cal­led Nie­mo­dliń­ski. The town' gro­wing im­por­tan­ce as the ca­pi­tal of an in­de­pen­dent sta­te en­ti­ty was re­flec­ted in ex­pan­sion of the fort­ress, which was strength­ened by a de­fen­si­ve wall and e­quip­ped with wood­en buil­dings fil­ling the spa­ce of the court­yard. When Bo­le­sław Pier­wo­rod­ny died, the du­chy was suc­ceed­ed by his el­dest son Bo­le­sław II Nie­mo­dliń­ski (d. 1368), and after heir­less death, his youn­ger bro­thers Wa­cław (d. 1369) and Hen­ryk (d. 1382) ru­led o­ver the­se lands. Due to the fact that all sons of Bo­le­sław Pier­wo­ro­dny died with­out ma­le off­spring, after the ex­pi­ry of the Nie­mo­dlin li­ne of Piasts in 1382, the cas­tle and the du­chy we­re ta­ken o­ver by the sons of the Opo­le du­ke Bo­lko III: Bol­ko IV (d. 1437), Hen­ryk (+1394) and Ber­nard (d. 1455). The last of the­se, in 1399, as an in­de­pen­dent ru­ler of this land, he mer­ged it with Strzel­ce Opol­skie to cre­ate a so­ve­reign sta­te, which en­ded in 1460, on­ly a few ye­ars after de­ath of its foun­der. Earl­ier, ho­we­ver, du­ring the Hus­si­te wars in the 1420s, the town and the cas­tle we­re in­va­ded and then de­stro­yed by Czech troops, go­ing through Nie­mo­dlin to Brzeg. As early as in the first half of the cen­tu­ry, the fort­ress was re­built from war da­ma­ge, and per­haps e­ven mo­der­ni­zed and en­lar­ged by ad­ding a Go­thic re­si­den­tial hou­se in its south­ern part. Ho­we­ver, it was pro­ba­bly no lon­ger a cen­tre of po­wer, but was still u­sed as a se­at of lo­cal ad­mi­ni­stra­tion and a pla­ce of court.


IMG BORDER=1 style=

AERIAL VIEW FROM THE NORTH-WEST


n 1450, over 70-year-old Bernard, who had no male descendant, han­ded o­ver the Nie­mo­dlin part of the du­chy to Bol­ko V Wo­ło­szek (d. 1460), son-in-law of the Po­lish Queen El­żbie­ta Gra­now­ska. He and his wi­fe Jad­wi­ga Bies al­so did not ha­ve a son, as a re­sult of which after Bol­ko's death the dis­trict of Nie­mo­dlin be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of the Du­kes of Opo­le, who from that ti­me on used the ti­tle: Lord of Nie­mo­dlin. Such a sta­te of af­fairs las­ted un­til 1532, when, after the heir­less death of the last Opo­le-Ra­ci­bórz Piast Jan II Do­bry (John II The Good) the du­chy ca­me un­der the ru­le of the Czech King Fer­di­nand I Hab­sburg (d. 1564). Soon this ru­ler le­ased the cas­tle to the Bran­den­burg Mar­gra­ve Ge­org Ho­hen­zol­lern-An­sbach (d. 1543), ne­phew of the Po­lish King Zyg­munt Sta­ry (Si­gis­mund the Old) and bro­ther of the Grand Ma­ster of Teu­to­nic Knights Al­brecht Ho­hen­zol­lern, and then to his mi­nor son Ge­org Frie­drich (d. 1603). In 1551, as a com­pen­sa­tion for re­lin­quish­ing claims to the Hun­gar­ian thro­ne, the Du­chy of Opo­le, to­ge­ther with the ti­tle of Du­ke of the Reich and an an­nu­al sa­la­ry of 25 thou­sand flo­rins, re­cei­ved Queen Re­gent Iza­be­la Ja­giel­lon­ka (d. 1559) to­ge­ther with her son Jan Zyg­munt (d. 1571). Ho­we­ver, the daugh­ter of Zyg­munt Sta­ry and Queen Bo­na did not co­me to Nie­mo­dlin, and on her be­half the ad­mi­ni­stra­tive au­tho­ri­ty was held he­re by Wen­zel Püc­kler, who may ha­ve wit­nes­sed the gre­at fi­re of the town in 1552, which de­stro­yed part of the buil­dings and ser­ious­ly da­ma­ged the cas­tle walls and e­quip­ment.



THE OLDEST KNOWN IMAGE OF THE CASTLE, VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST
CH. GLAUBITZ GESCHICHTE DER HERRSCHAFT FALKENBERG IN OBERSCHLIESEN, 1734


hen Isabella Jagiellonka left in 1557, the half-burnt ruin was pled­ged to Count Ma­thes von Lo­gau, Chan­cel­lor of the Ny­sa Bi­shop­ric, and after his death in 1567, it was pla­ced in the hands of his son Hen­rik. A ye­ar la­ter, ho­we­ver, his fa­ther's con­tract with the la­te Em­pe­ror Fer­di­nand Hab­sburg ex­pi­red, and the town of Nie­mo­dlin it­self ap­plied to the in­cum­bent Em­pe­ror Ma­xi­mi­lian (d. 1576) to ta­ke o­ver the pled­ge, even­tu­al­ly re­cei­ving it. The town coun­cil ad­mi­ni­ste­red the cas­tle for on­ly four ye­ars, after which in 1572 Cas­par Pück­ler von Gro­ditz (d. 1584) took o­ver the Nie­mo­dlin e­sta­te, pay­ing a hu­ge sum of 32 thou­sand tha­lers for a 22-ye­ar le­ase. This a­mount in­clu­ded a 'dis­count' of 6200 tha­lers, which the pur­cha­ser re­cei­ved from Em­pe­ror due to the plan­ned cost of the cas­tle re­con­stru­ction, sin­ce by de­ci­sion of Em­pe­ror's ex­pert, the buil­ding was wild and bad­ly built, and the old to­wer was a use­less he­ap of sto­nes. In 1581 he de­ci­ded to buy the sub­le­ased pro­per­ty, and then to­ge­ther with his son Bal­tha­zar (d. 1591) and his wi­fe Po­li­xe­na Ne­cher von Buch­wald (d. 1609) he esta­bli­shed the pri­va­te sta­te of Nie­mo­dlin (Herr­schaft Fal­ken­berg). As a he­re­di­ta­ry lord, Bal­tha­zar star­ted at the end of the 1580s to re­build the Go­thic cas­tle in­to a Re­nais­san­ce sty­le. For that pur­po­se, he hi­red mas­ters Ja­kob West­phal and Hans Czer­re, un­der who­se su­per­vi­sion the buil­ding re­cei­ved a new north-west­ern wing with ga­te to­wer, a wind­ing stair­ca­se and a brick kit­chen, as well as three-sto­rey clois­ters ad­ded to re­si­den­tial buil­ding. Its south-west­ern wing was al­so mo­der­ni­sed, and the de­fen­ce sys­tem was re­in­for­ced with bas­tion and a mo­at, whe­re up to three hun­dred three-ye­ar-old carp are kept and over­win­te­red an­nu­al­ly.



THE TOWN AND THE CASTLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE XVIII CENTURY, F. B. WEHRNER TOPOGRAPHIA SEU COMPENDIUM SILESIAE 1744-68


althasar Pückler did not see the end of the con­stru­ction work as he died on 14 Au­gust 1591. The in­vest­ment was con­ti­nu­ed by his son-in-law Weig­hardt Prom­nitz (d. 1618), thanks to who­se ef­forts the cas­tle was en­lar­ged by two mo­re wings and four tur­rets with stair­cases, re­sul­ting in the form of an ele­gant qua­dri­la­te­ral with a Re­nais­san­ce ar­ca­de court­yard. Ho­we­ver, this sty­lish ap­pe­aran­ce did not de­pri­ve the cas­tle its de­fen­sive ca­pa­bi­li­ties. It was pro­tec­ted by a mo­at re­in­for­ced with sto­nes and a cur­tain wall with bas­tions, and the con­stant pre­sen­ce of its crew at the be­gin­ning of the 17th cen­tu­ry was to be pro­ved by de­fen­si­ve e­quip­ment for 23 in­fan­try and 22 ca­val­ry­men, lis­ted in the in­ven­to­ry from 1618. The ex­pen­di­tu­re on ex­pan­sion and fur­nish­ing of the pa­la­ce ap­pa­rent­ly ex­ceed­ed the fi­nan­cial pos­si­bi­li­ties of the own­ers, sin­ce at the ti­me of Weig­hardt's death the esta­te was in­deb­ted to the a­mount of 177 thou­sand tha­lers. So­me of the­se re­cei­va­bles re­sul­ted from his o­bli­ga­tions to Ernst Po­ser, who in ex­chan­ge for un­paid debts con­clu­ded a tem­po­ra­ry le­ase a­gree­ment with ca­re­ta­kers of Sey­fried, son of Weig­hardt, hol­ding the cas­tle un­til his de­ath in 1624. At that ti­me, he was sup­po­sed to run a rob­be­ry e­co­no­my, not ca­ring a­bout the sta­te of the pro­per­ty and with­dra­wing var­ious goods from it. As­sa­man Nos­tiz, the in­he­ri­tor of Ernst, con­ti­nu­ed his ru­le in Nie­mo­dlin un­til 22 April 1648, when, with the sup­port of the lo­cal in­ha­bi­tants and Opo­le mi­li­tia, it was ta­ken o­ver by for­ce by Sey­fried Prom­nitz, Lord of Pszczy­na and Wiel­kie Strzel­ce. When Sey­fried died with­out an heir­loom in 1650, the town and the cas­tle on­ce a­gain be­ca­me the sub­ject of dis­pu­tes and li­ti­ga­tion be­tween the heirs of the Po­sers and the heirs of the Prom­nitz fa­mi­ly. The un­re­gu­la­ted le­gal sta­tus of re­si­den­ce, but al­so the re­cent­ly en­ded Thir­ty Ye­ars' War and the ac­com­pa­ny­ing mi­li­ta­ry mar­ches, re­qui­si­tions and fi­res ma­de the cas­tle in need of ur­gent and far-re­aching re­no­va­tions. Apart from the in­fra­stru­ctu­re da­ma­ge, va­lu­able cas­tle e­quip­ment was al­so de­stro­yed or sto­len.


F. PAZELT'S LITHOGRAPH WITH A VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE NORTH, 2ND HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY


n a year 1650, the Niemodlin estate was ta­ken over by Sey­fried Prom­nitz's cou­sin and Bal­tha­zar Püc­kler's grand­son Ber­nard von Zie­ro­tin (d. 1655), but on­ly four ye­ars la­ter he ma­na­ged to en­ter the cas­tle, which had been oc­cu­pied by cre­di­tors un­til then. After his death, the pro­per­ty was han­ded o­ver to his son, Sieg­fried Erd­mann, who, ha­ving re­ached the age of ma­jo­ri­ty, ma­de an at­tempt to rai­se the fa­mi­ly head­quar­ters from the fall. Ho­we­ver, sco­pe of work car­ried out on his ini­tia­ti­ve was ve­ry li­mi­ted and in­clu­ded, abo­ve all, the re­no­va­tion of in­ter­iors and de­co­ra­tion of the ele­va­tion in the ear­ly Ba­ro­que sty­le. With Sieg­fried's death in 1708, a court dis­pu­te aro­se be­tween his heirs, which en­ded by han­ding o­ver Nie­mo­dlin to his young­est son, Franz Lud­wig (d. 1731), who sin­ce 1716 has held the ti­tle of Lord on Nie­mo­dlin and Tu­ło­wi­ce and Va­laš­ské Me­ziř­ice, Kras­na and Rož­nov un­der Rad­hoštĕm in Mo­ra­via. He cho­se Va­la­šské Me­ziř­ici as the main se­at of the fa­mi­ly, whe­re his work was the Ba­ro­que re­con­stru­ction of the lo­cal old cas­tle. He did not pay much at­ten­tion to main­te­nan­ce of Si­le­sian re­si­den­ces, as evi­den­ced, among other things, by the fact that the rooms of the Tu­ło­wi­ce pa­la­ce we­re u­sed to sto­re grain. In 1731 the Nie­mo­dlin-Tu­ło­wi­ce part of esta­te was in­he­ri­ted by Franz Lud­wig's young­er son, Mi­cha­el von Zie­ro­tin (d. 1779). The tech­ni­cal con­di­tion of the cas­tle was not so good at that ti­me, as its ma­na­gers de­scri­bed the brid­ge as ve­ry un­cer­tain, sug­ge­sting an in­dis­pen­sa­ble, ne­ces­sa­ry re­no­va­tion. It is ve­ry pos­si­ble that in the mid­dle of the 18th cen­tu­ry it was on Mi­cha­el's ini­tia­ti­ve that the re­si­den­ce re­cei­ved man­sard roofs, ba­ro­que win­dow and ga­ble de­co­ra­tions, as well as a new ar­ca­de brid­ge with ba­ro­que sculp­tu­res of saints, whi­le the park was en­ri­ched with sty­lish pa­vil­ions and o­ran­ge­ry. We al­so owe to him the cre­ation of the so-cal­led Gol­den Book of Nie­mo­dlin-Tu­ło­wi­ce as­sets - a list of pro­per­ties pre­pa­red in 1734 by Chris­toph Glau­bitz, to­ge­ther with a re­gi­ster of re­si­dents, de­tai­led field maps and plans, as well as the ol­dest ico­no­gra­phic re­pre­sen­ta­tion of the cas­tle. In 1755, after the heir­less de­ath of his ol­der bro­ther Franz, Mi­cha­el von Zie­ro­tin in­cor­po­ra­ted the Mo­ra­vian e­sta­tes in­to his Si­le­sian he­ri­ta­ge and ma­na­ged them un­til his death in 1779.


VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE NORTH-WEST ON A DRAWING BY G. RASEL


COLOURED POSTCARD FROM AROUND 1900


ince Michael von Zierotin remained a bachelor un­til the end of his li­fe, he ma­de a cou­sin, Lud­wig An­ton von Zie­ro­tin (d. 1817), heir to the Mo­ra­vian e­sta­te. The heir to the Si­le­sian part was his mo­ther's ne­phew, Jo­hann Ne­po­muk Carl Prasch­ma (d. 1822), a lo­ver of li­te­ra­tu­re and mu­sic, who ga­the­red a lar­ge li­bra­ry in the cas­tle of Nie­mo­dlin, or­ga­ni­sed the­atre per­for­man­ces he­re and main­tai­ned a court band. In 1787, on his ini­tia­ti­ve, ano­ther re­con­stru­ction of the cas­tle com­plex be­gan, as a re­sult of which, un­der su­per­vi­sion of the ar­chi­tect na­med Steg­lich, so­me of the Re­nais­san­ce clois­ters and de­co­ra­ti­ve at­tics we­re re­moved, which cor­res­pon­ded to the re­qui­re­ments of the epoch ce­le­bra­ting the sty­le ba­sed on an­cient tra­di­tion. In Lip­no, 3 ki­lo­me­tres a­way, Jo­hann Ne­po­muk has al­so e­sta­bli­shed a land­sca­pe park with a bo­ta­ni­cal gar­den, var­ied by lei­su­re pa­vil­ions and ro­man­tic park ar­chi­te­ctu­re. The work star­ted by his fa­ther was con­ti­nu­ed after his death by Frie­drich Prasch­ma (d. 1860), a ve­te­ran of Na­po­le­onic Wars and an eager sub­ject of the Prus­sian King Frie­drich Wil­helm IV, whom he per­so­nal­ly hos­ted in 1846 at the cas­tle in Nie­mo­dlin. He com­ple­ted re­con­stru­ction of the cas­tle court­yard; al­so on his ini­tia­ti­ve, in the first half of the ni­ne­teenth cen­tu­ry, the re­si­den­ce was sur­roun­ded by a small Eng­lish-sty­le park, part­ial­ly ar­ran­ged on si­te of me­die­val mo­ats. The heir of Frie­drich was Frie­drich II Wil­helm Prasch­ma (d. 1909), a par­ti­ci­pant in the wars with Den­mark, Aus­tria and Fran­ce, whe­re he ac­ti­ve­ly en­ga­ged in sa­ma­ri­tan ser­vi­ces. The cas­tle owes him a num­ber of re­no­va­tion works com­bi­ned with a neo-Go­thic re­con­stru­ction, which was car­ried out in 1869-73 un­der the su­per­vi­sion of Dres­den ar­chi­tect Karl Pie­per and de­co­ra­tor Hein­rich Com­mans from Düs­sel­dorf.



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THE CASTLE COURTYARD IN THE 1920S AND NOWADAYS (2020)


fter death of Friedrich II in 1909, the eldest of his ten child­ren, Jo­han­nes Prasch­ma (d. 1935), be­ca­me the next heir of fa­mi­ly for­tu­ne, as did his fa­ther, a so­cia­list ac­ti­vist and par­ti­ci­pant in the po­li­ti­cal li­fe of the Reich. He ini­tial­ly li­ved with his fa­mi­ly in Ro­gi pa­la­ce, but in 1916 he mo­ved to Nie­mo­dlin and soon after­wards com­mis­sio­ned a­no­ther mo­der­ni­sa­tion of the cas­tle. Its main go­al was to aban­don the al­re­ady un­fa­shion­able neo-Go­thic form in fa­vour of a sty­le ba­sed on neo-Re­nais­san­ce and neo-Ba­ro­que mo­tifs, and it was car­ried out un­der strict con­ser­va­tion su­per­vi­sion with par­ti­ci­pa­tion of the Wro­cław ar­chi­tect Karl Gros­ser and Hum­bert Wal­cher, co-au­thor of re­buil­ding of Książ cas­tle. The aes­the­tic chan­ges of the buil­ding we­re ac­com­pa­nied by in­tro­du­ction of tech­ni­cal in­no­va­tions such as elec­tri­ci­ty and cen­tral heat­ing; as well as long-awai­ted wa­ter­works, which had not been ins­tal­led he­re be­fo­re. Fried­rich III Le­opold Prasch­ma (d. 2000), the last pre-war ow­ner of the cas­tle, tried to con­ti­nue his fa­ther's res­to­ra­tion pro­ject. His reign las­ted on­ly a de­ca­de, of which he spent a few ye­ars in Ger­man army, vi­si­ting Nie­mo­dlin on­ly du­ring his ho­li­days. In this si­tu­ation, the ma­jo­ri­ty of cur­rent mat­ters re­la­ted to pro­per­ty ma­na­ge­ment and pro­te­ction a­gainst ad­mi­ni­stra­ti­ve de­ci­sions we­re hand­led by his wi­fe, So­phie zu Ho­he­lo­he-Schil­lings­fürst (d. 1981). Al­though she suc­ceed­ed in pre­ven­ting de­mo­li­tion of the ga­te buil­ding with the south­ern wall, plan­ned at the end of 1941 due to the idea of wi­de­ning the main com­mu­ni­ca­tion ro­ad, the fol­lo­wing ye­ar she had to hand o­ver the 16th-cen­tu­ry cas­tle bells, con­fis­ca­­ted by the Na­zi au­tho­ri­ties for war pur­po­ses. After the Al­lied air raids on Ger­ma­ny's lar­gest ci­ties be­gan, pla­ces for var­ious ins­ti­tu­tions and or­ga­ni­sa­tions we­re ur­gent­ly sought in smal­ler cen­tres such as Nie­mo­dlin. So he­re, in March 1944, in se­ve­ral cas­tle rooms, chests be­long­ing to the Sta­te Ar­chi­ves we­re pla­ced, and half a ye­ar la­ter, mo­re rooms were adap­ted for the needs of the I.G. Far­ben­in­dus­trie con­cern, which u­sed the sla­ve la­bor of con­cen­tra­tion camp pri­so­ners.


CASTLE FROM THE WEST, 1930S


Members of the Praschma family left Niemodlin in Ja­nu­ary 1945 and ne­ver re­tur­ned, set­tling in Ka­pel­len ne­ar Düs­sel­dorf. After the Red Ar­my en­te­red the town, the cas­tle was oc­cu­pied for a short ti­me by the war com­mand and a mi­li­ta­ry hos­pi­tal, so that after the front was go­ne, the lo­cal mi­lit­siya found its head­quar­ters he­re. In the farm buil­dings, the of­fi­ces of the Dis­trict Land Ad­mi­ni­stra­tion ha­ve been ar­ran­ged, which was res­pon­si­ble for "ad­mi­ni­ste­ring" the for­mer Ger­man land esta­tes and their e­quip­ment, of­ten co­ming from Si­le­sian pa­la­ces and ma­nors. At that ti­me, the fur­ni­tu­re, ele­ments of de­co­ra­tion and equip­ment left by the for­mer ow­ners of the cas­tle we­re sto­len, as well as the his­to­ric rooms and the im­me­dia­te sur­round­ings of the re­si­den­ce we­re de­va­sta­ted. For the new au­tho­ri­ty, the­se we­re ele­ments hos­ti­le to class and na­tio­na­li­ty, and in its o­pi­nion they did not de­ser­ve res­pect. In win­ter of 1946, the buil­ding hou­sed a gym­na­sium, la­ter trans­for­med in­to a high school. The cas­tle cham­bers ser­ved as class­rooms and apart­ments for te­achers, rooms for stu­dents we­re pla­ced in the out­hou­se, and the gym hall was a­dap­ted in the buil­ding of ...for­mer sta­ble. In the ear­ly 1960s, the buil­ding need­ed ur­gent re­no­va­tion, but the lack of funds li­mi­ted the main­te­nan­ce work to ne­ces­sa­ry re­pair of the fa­ca­de and pla­ster. In 1971, for se­cu­ri­ty re­asons, the high school was mo­ved to new lo­ca­tion, and the cas­tle was han­ded o­ver to lo­cal cul­tu­ral ins­ti­tu­tions and to the pri­ma­ry school (de­spite the risk of a con­stru­ction di­sa­ster!). Ho­we­ver, as ear­ly as in 1978, it be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of Pe­ni­ten­tia­ry Bo­ard, which was plan­ning to adapt the buil­ding for the school of pri­son staff. The on­ly be­ne­fit for the cas­tle in this si­tu­ation was the re­no­va­tion of the roof, which was car­ried out in the 1980s.; no school was o­pe­ned here and un­til the fall of com­mu­nism the buil­ding was a­ban­do­ned. In 1990, it was bought by a pri­va­te in­ves­tor, start­ing its re­no­va­tion, which is still go­ing on (with bre­aks) to this day. In 2006, the re­si­den­ce was own­ed by the Ins­ti­tu­te of Cre­ati­ve Work, in 2014-15 it be­lon­ged to the Ital­ian Count (?) de Ra­vig­na­ni, and fi­nal­ly was han­ded o­ver to Cen­trum com­pany from Łódź.


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CASTLE IN NIEMODLIN, 2020




THE SPATIAL FORM OF THE CASTLE AND ITS TRANSFORMATION
BETWEEN XIII AND THE END OF XVI CENTURY

1. half of 13th century

A stone residential tower erected on a rec­tan­gu­lar plan with si­des of 4.8x9 me­ters, among the pools of Ści­na­wa Ri­ver. The lack of but­tres­ses may sug­gest a small height of the buil­ding. It is sur­roun­ded by an ir­ri­ga­ted mo­at.

2. half of 13th century

The existing tower is demolished and a more im­pres­si­ve buil­ding is erec­ted in its pla­ce, al­so in form of a re­si­den­tial to­wer, which is in­cor­po­ra­ted in­to the town' s de­fen­ce cir­cuit. Built on a rec­tan­gu­lar plan with si­des of 11x12.3 me­ters, in the lo­wer parts ma­de of sto­nes and bro­ken li­me­sto­ne, in the up­per part pro­ba­bly of brick. From the north and west the walls of the to­wer are sup­por­ted by mas­si­ve butt­res­ses, and the sur­roun­ding co­ni­cal em­bank­ment and cas­tle mo­at pro­vi­de ad­di­tio­nal de­fen­se.

ca. 1313

The embankment is leveled, and in its pla­ce Bo­le­sław Nie­mo­dliń­ski builds a brick cur­tain wall, clo­sing a 33.7x40.5 me­ter squa­re. A court­yard is for­med be­tween the to­wer and the wall. The en­tran­ce to the cas­tle le­ads through a ga­te pro­ba­bly lo­ca­ted in the south-east­ern cur­tain.

ca. 1450

The stone tower is demolished. The residential fun­ctions are ta­ken o­ver by a new Go­thic pa­la­ce, erec­ted on the out­si­de of e­xist­ing de­fen­si­ve pe­ri­me­ter, in its south-west­ern part. It is a three-sto­rey brick buil­ding with four cham­bers on each floor, who­se in­ter­iors are il­lu­mi­na­ted by small win­dows. The east­ern part of the pa­la­ce is pro­ba­bly oc­cu­pied by a cha­pel, the sour­ces al­so men­tion the so-cal­led big hall, whe­re po­li­ti­cal and so­cial li­fe of the court pro­ba­bly took pla­ce. From court­yard si­de, the buil­ding's fa­ca­des are de­co­ra­ted with mul­ti­co­lour­ed, po­ly­chro­me blends, whi­le its cor­ners and ou­ter wall are sup­por­ted by butt­res­ses. The en­tran­ce to en­lar­ged court­yard le­ads pro­ba­bly from the north-west­ern si­de, in the pla­ce of to­day's ga­te­way.

1572(89)-93

A renaissance rebuilding of the castle. North-west­ern wing is cre­ated with ga­te to­wer and brick, vaul­ted kit­chen, and three-sto­rey clois­ters. The to­wer is crown­ed with sty­lish hel­met with a two-sto­rey lan­tern, and its fa­ca­des are de­co­ra­ted with sgraf­fi­to de­co­ra­tion. Ver­ti­cal com­mu­ni­ca­tion in new cas­tle ta­kes pla­ce through a spi­ral stair­ca­se pla­ced in­si­de a tur­ret, stan­ding in the cor­ner of the court­yard. The bas­tions strength­en the exis­ting de­fen­si­ve sys­tem of the buil­ding, which acquir­es the fe­atu­res ty­pi­cal for pa­laz­zo in for­tez­za ob­jects.



HISTORICAL LAYOUT OF THE TOWN: 1. CASTLE, 2. BAILEY (HONORARY COURTYARD),
3. COLLEGIATE CHURCH, 4. MARKET SQUARE, 5. TOWN WALLS, 6. CASTLE POND




THE CASTLE IN A NIEMODLIN, THE GROUND FLOOR LAYOUT - THE OLDEST, XV-CENTURY CASTLE WALLS ARE MARKED IN BLACK:
1. TOWER WITH AN ENTRANCE TO COURTYARD, 2. NORTH-WEST WING, 3. SOUTH-WEST WING, 4. CHAPEL, 5. TOWERS - STAIRCASES, 6. CLOISTERS



THE MOST IMPORTANT CHANGES IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE CASTLE
FROM THE 17TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT DAY

1610- 1618

A north-eastern wing with a chapel and a south-east­ern wing with an open gal­le­ry are ad­ded to exist­ing two wings - the cas­tle ob­tains the form of a full qua­dri­la­te­ral. In all four cor­ners of the court­yard, sty­lish tur­rets with stair­ca­ses are e­rec­ted, which are con­nec­ted by clois­ters that run a­round it. The walls of the cas­tle are pro­ba­bly pla­ste­red in white, and de­co­ra­ted with po­ly­chro­me win­dow fra­me or­na­ments. A cur­tain wall with roun­dels and a ga­te buil­ding le­ading to the farm court­yard are e­rec­ted on the town si­de. A lit­tle earl­ier, pre­su­ma­bly at the turn of the 16th and 17th cen­tur­ies, the ga­te to­wer re­cei­ves a clock me­cha­nism and bells with in­scrip­tion (trans­la­ted): God, want to pro­tect from fi­re and o­ther dan­gers this town, its in­ha­bi­tants, and tho­se bells, that we­re cast on 24 Sep­tem­ber 1599.

ca. 1750

Michael von Zierotin changes the castle's décor to Ba­ro­que: the wings gain de­co­ra­ti­ve gab­les and man­sard roofs, a new court­yard fa­ça­de of the south-east­ern buil­ding is cre­ated, and new win­dow de­co­ra­tion ap­pe­ars. The old draw­brid­ge is re­pla­ced by an ar­ca­ded sto­ne brid­ge, which is de­co­ra­ted with Ba­ro­que sta­tu­es of saints. New farm buil­dings are be­ing e­rec­ted in the bai­ley, and an oran­ge­ry is built in the gar­den.

1787-1822

Brick up the open gallery in the southeastern wing and ar­ran­ge li­ving quar­ters in it. The cor­ner tur­rets, so far top­ped with an at­tic, are gi­ven man­sard roofs with sha­ped tips. Start of work aim­ed at a tho­rough trans­for­ma­tion of im­me­dia­te sur­round­ings of the re­si­den­ce. Cas­tle mo­ats are le­vel­led, and in their pla­ce Jo­hann Ne­po­muk Carl Prasch­ma sets up an Eng­lish sty­le park.

after 1822

Cloisters in the castle court­yard are brick­ed up and win­dows are pla­ced in their ar­ca­des. Work on the or­ga­ni­za­tion of the park is con­ti­nu­ed.

1869-73

Friedrich II Wilhelm Praschma raises the chapel by one floor and con­verts it in­to a neo-Go­thic sty­le, and al­so trans­forms the cas­tle in­ter­iors. The ex­ter­ior e­le­va­tion of the south-west­ern wing is equip­ped with a ter­ra­ce with an exit to the gar­den. The ga­te buil­ding al­so un­der­goes a chan­ge, which is gi­ven an ec­le­ctic ap­pe­aran­ce, and the tops of out­buil­dings are gi­ven man­ne­rist forms.

1916-35

Conversion of the residence into a neo-Ba­ro­que and neo-Re­nais­san­ce sty­le: the main to­wer, the gar­den ter­ra­ce and the ga­te buil­ding re­cei­ve new de­co­ra­tion. The ar­ca­des of the clois­ters are part­ial­ly ex­po­sed. In­ter­ior re­no­va­tion is com­bi­ned with the in­stal­la­tion of wa­ter­works, cen­tral heat­ing and e­lec­tri­ci­ty.

1961

Demolition of a part of the south­ern wall and one of the roun­dels due to ro­ad wi­de­ning.




SOUTHWESTERN FACADE WITH A TERRACE AND NORTHWESTERN FACADE WITH A GATE TOWER IN DRAWINGS BY O. E. NOETTNER, 1913


he castle presents a type of lowland, qua­dri­la­te­ral re­si­den­ce with an in­ner court­yard, con­sist­ing of three high wings and a lo­wer south-east­ern buil­ding. The old­est part is he­re the 15th cen­tu­ry south-west­ern wing, who­se fa­ça­de was main­ly ar­chi­tec­tu­ral­ly for­med in the ear­ly 17th cen­tu­ry. Its aus­te­re, ni­ne-axis front is de­co­ra­ted with Ba­ro­que win­dows and a ter­ra­ce stair­ca­se that gent­ly go­es down to the gar­den, whi­le the in­ter­iors hi­de vaul­ted cel­lars and al­so a vaul­ted re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve hall on the ground floor, pro­ba­bly for­med in pla­ce of the Go­thic Grand Hall. The bar­rel vaults can al­so be found in the ba­se­ments of the north-east­ern wing, whe­re Jo­hann Ne­po­muk Carl Pra­schma and his wi­fe Ma­rian­ne res­ted in the tomb crypt. Abo­ve them ri­ses a 17th cen­tu­ry cha­pel, who­se con­tem­po­ra­ry neo-Go­thic ar­chi­tec­tu­ral form is the re­sult of re­con­stru­ction car­ried out by Karl Pi­per in the 1870s, and the de­co­ra­tion is lar­ge­ly re­ali­za­tion of ar­tis­tic con­cept of de­co­ra­tor Franz Hein­rich Com­mans. In its west­ern bay the­re is a brick mu­sic choir, and the walls are var­ied by neo-Go­thic se­mi-co­lumns with u­ni­que he­ads de­co­ra­ted with plant mo­tifs re­fer­ring to the park stand. The other rooms in the cas­tle are cha­rac­te­ri­sed by ar­chi­tec­tu­ral so­lu­tions and de­co­ra­tions ty­pi­cal for la­ter per­iods: Ba­ro­que, Clas­si­cism and Neo-Go­thic. Com­mu­ni­ca­tion be­tween them on in­di­vi­du­al floors is en­su­red by vaul­ted clois­ters, who­se ar­ca­de o­pe­nings we­re part­ly brick­ed up in the 19th cen­tu­ry and co­lour­ed glass win­dows we­re pla­ced in them. In their ori­gi­nal form, the clois­ters ha­ve been pre­ser­ved on­ly in the ground floor of the north-west­ern and north-east­ern wing (the cha­pel). Ver­ti­cal com­mu­ni­ca­tion is car­ried out by four cor­ner tur­rets with wind­ing stai­rs and plat­forms ac­ces­sib­le from the court­yard.


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NORTH-EASTERN WING WITH CASTLE CHAPEL


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GARDEN TERRACE IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASTLE


he north-western facade of the cas­tle is ac­cen­tu­ated by a tall to­wer pro­tru­ding be­yond its fa­ce, with ga­te­way le­ading di­rect­ly to the court­yard. It is a fi­ve-sto­rey buil­ding, in the lo­wer part erec­ted on a squa­re plan, high­er o­cta­go­nal, top­ped with a gal­lery and a Re­nais­san­ce hel­met. A car­touche with the Pra­schma's co­at of arms was built in­to the to­wer's ele­va­tion, slight­ly a­bo­ve the mo­dest por­tal, and a clock was in­stal­led in its high­est part (on­ly its re­lics are left). Be­tween them the­re we­re two small win­dows and a shoot­ing ho­le - proof that the Re­nais­san­ce trans­for­ma­tion of the cas­tle was do­ne with view to main­tain­ing its de­fen­si­ve fun­ctions. A brid­ge from the mid-18th cen­tu­ry le­ads to the ga­te, for­mer­ly pas­sed a­bo­ve a cas­tle mo­at. It is flan­ked on both si­des by four Ba­ro­que fi­gu­res of saints: Flo­rian - pa­tron of fi­re­men, An­to­ni of Pa­dua - pro­tec­tor of mar­ria­ges and tra­vel gu­ard, Ne­po­mu­cen - pa­tron of brid­ges and fi­nal­ly Ve­ne­lin, guard­ian of shep­herds and far­mers, de­pic­ted he­re as a young man with cur­ly hair and a lit­tle lamb hug­ging him. The re­si­den­ce is sur­roun­ded by a small cas­tle park, esta­blish­ed in the ni­ne­teenth cen­tu­ry on the a­rea of the 17th cen­tu­ry gar­den, and on the si­te of bur­ied me­die­val mo­ats. Ma­ny of spe­ci­mens gro­wing he­re are o­ver an age-old trees, of which the most va­lu­able, due to their me­tric, si­ze and aes­the­tic va­lu­es, are the ne­arly 170-ye­ar-old Le­opold oak and 400-year-old yew Iwo.


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BAROQUE SCULPTURES ON THE CASTLE BRIDGE, ST. ANTONI AND ST. NEPOMUCEN
BELOW: ST. VENELIN AND ST. FLORIAN


n western and north-western part of the cas­tle's lay­out, the­re was a lar­ge bai­ley, which was la­ter trans­for­med in­to a gran­ge with two court­yards, se­pa­ra­ted in the se­ven­teenth cen­tu­ry by a mag­ni­fi­cent edi­fi­ce of the out­hou­se. This two-sto­rey buil­ding, sup­por­ted by but­res­ses, on the ground floor ini­tial­ly hou­sed rooms of the of­fi­cials ma­na­ging the Nie­mo­dlin e­sta­te, whi­le its floor ser­ved as quar­ters for lo­wer-le­vel of­fi­cials and ser­vants. In the 18th cen­tu­ry part of the buil­ding was oc­cu­pied by bur­gra­ves and land wri­ters, la­ter troops of var­ious for­ma­tions and ar­mies we­re sta­tio­ned the­re, and not long ago a bust­ling li­fe of stu­dents took pla­ce he­re. The sig­ni­fi­cant fun­ction of the out­hou­se in the past is evi­den­ced by de­tails and ele­ments of de­co­ra­tion pre­ser­ved to our ti­mes, in­clu­ding the en­tran­ce por­tal with cor­ni­ce and co­lumns, de­co­ra­ti­ve tops or wood­en cei­lings or­na­men­ted with co­lor­ful po­ly­chro­me. In its east­ern sec­tion the­re is a ga­te­way le­ading to the for­mer north­ern court­yard, who­se strict­ly e­co­no­mic cha­rac­ter was em­pha­si­zed by smal­ler buil­dings of var­ious pur­po­ses (bre­we­ry, dis­til­le­ry, slaugh­ter­hou­se, etc.), all of which we­re ma­de of wood and clay. A slight­ly dif­fe­rent, mo­re so­phis­ti­ca­ted sty­le cha­rac­te­ri­zed the spa­ce or­ga­ni­zed a­round ho­no­ra­ry court­yard, lo­ca­ted in the south­ern part of the bai­ley. A re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve dri­ve­way to the cas­tle was le­ad­ing he­re, start­ing from an ele­gant ga­te buil­ding with de­co­ra­ti­ve por­tals and a round to­wer equip­ped with a stair­ca­se. The court­yard is clo­sed from the west and from the east by old farm buil­dings (guard's quar­ters, sta­bles, co­ach hous­es, ga­ra­ges) de­co­ra­ted with ba­salt sto­ne and clin­ker brick, and the who­le is com­ple­ted from the north by pre­vious­ly men­tio­ned ma­nor out­hou­se. The ga­te­way was in­te­gra­ted in­to the sto­ne and brick wall, the re­mains of which we­re pre­ser­ved at en­tran­ce to the mar­ket squa­re.


(UNREALIZED) PROJECT OF GATE BUILDING RECONSTRUCTION, 1862



everal decades of post-war stagnation, fol­lo­wed by of­ten chan­ging pri­va­te ow­ners, ma­de the cas­tle, al­though al­most com­ple­te, re­quir­ing ur­gent in­vest­ment. The­re is a his­to­ri­cal win­dow sto­ne­ma­son­ry and por­tals pre­ser­ved from its for­mer ar­chi­tec­tu­ral or­na­ment, and so­me of the in­ter­ior de­co­ra­tions (stuc­co, Re­nais­san­ce fi­re­pla­ce, vault or­na­ments), as well as frag­ments of sgraf­fi­te de­co­ra­tions of the ex­ter­ior e­le­va­tion, un­for­tu­na­te­ly lar­ge­ly e­ra­sed by the ti­me and de­stroy­ing for­ces of na­tu­re. The lack of pro­per ca­re of the buil­ding has par­ti­cu­lar­ly se­ve­re­ly af­fec­ted the con­di­tion of the gar­den ter­ra­ce and the sta­bi­li­ty of the cas­tle cei­lings, which part­ial­ly col­lap­sed. De­spi­te the ne­gli­gen­ce vi­si­ble at eve­ry turn, let's just ho­pe that thanks to the en­ga­ge­ment of the new ow­ner, the cas­tle with its clo­sest sur­roun­dings will re­gain at le­ast part of its pre-war charm. The first sig­ni­fi­cant step to­wards this go­al was, co-fi­nan­ced by the Mi­ni­stry of Cul­tu­re and Na­tio­nal He­ri­ta­ge, the re­pla­ce­ment of roof co­ve­ring, con­sis­ting of 120 thou­sand ti­les. The ne­arest plans are al­so to re­pla­ce the wood­work, in­clu­ding all win­dows, and to re­no­va­te the fa­ca­de.


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VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE SOUTH


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RENAISSANCE PORTAL AND STONE BENCHES AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE CASTLE COURTYARD


he castle is open for tourists. Ac­com­pa­nied by a gui­de, the vi­si­tors can ex­plo­re a neo-Go­thic cha­pel with 19th cen­tu­ry pain­ting de­co­ra­tions and rem­nants of the ori­gi­nal equip­ment: wood­en spi­ral stairs, a sto­ne bap­ti­smal font and epi­taphs com­me­mo­ra­ting the for­mer ow­ners of Nie­mo­dlin. Lar­ge cas­tle cel­lars con­tain a gra­ve crypt, whe­re the bod­ies of Jo­hann Ne­po­muk Carl Pra­schma and his wi­fe Ma­rian­na are bur­ied in con­cre­te sar­co­pha­gi. An ex­hi­bi­tion of 18th-20th cen­tu­ry icons, co­ming from Rus­sia, Greece and the Bal­kans, and to­day ow­ned by the lo­cal foun­da­tion, is al­so or­ga­ni­zed he­re. In the other part of the cel­lars the­re is an exe­cu­tio­ner's work­shop, or ra­ther a con­tem­po­ra­ry in­ter­pre­ta­tion of for­mer tor­tu­re cham­ber, as well as a pla­ce cal­led a wi­ne­ry. The li­ving are­as are re­pre­sen­ted, among others, by sty­lish rooms of the south­west­ern wing, in­clu­ding a pa­ra­de neo-Go­thic loun­ge and a whi­te loun­ge, un­for­tu­na­te­ly re­quir­ing ur­gent in­ter­ven­tion - other­wi­se it will col­lap­se. Le­aving the cas­tle walls it is worth to stop by the brid­ge o­ver the for­mer mo­at. For se­ve­ral cen­tur­ies, the­re ha­ve been four saints stan­ding he­re at the post: Flor­ian, Ne­po­mu­cen, An­to­ni and Ve­ne­lin, which are one of the most va­lu­able ba­ro­que park sculp­tu­res in Si­le­sia. Fi­nal­ly, I must men­tion the fal­low deer li­ving half-wild in the sur­roun­ding park, who­se pre­sen­ce he­re is a re­fe­ren­ce to the tra­di­tion of pre-war cas­tle me­na­ge­rie.


Castle in Niemodlin
Rynek 55, 49-100 Niemodlin
tel. 608 090 840
e-mail: zamek(at)aia.pl

Opening hours / Admissions



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NEO-GOTHIC CHAPEL IN THE NORTHEAST WING


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IN CASTLE CELLARS



The picturesque scenery of the castle was used in 2005 by Jan Ja­kub Kol­ski, who pla­ced the main action of his mo­vie Jas­mi­num with­in the walls of this his­to­ri­cal re­si­den­ce. The sto­ry pre­sen­ted in the mo­vie ta­kes pla­ce in the small town of Jaś­mi­nów (Gło­gó­wek was used as an open-air sta­ge) and a mo­na­ste­ry lo­ca­ted in its vi­ci­ni­ty (Nie­mo­dlin cas­tle), in­ha­bi­ted by Su­per­ior of the Or­der, Fa­ther Kle­ofas (Adam Fe­ren­cy), Bro­ther Zdrów­ko (He­alth, Ja­nusz Ga­jos), res­pon­si­ble for pre­pa­ring me­als and ta­king ca­re of ani­mals, and three ec­cen­tric her­mits: Cze­rem­cha (Bird cher­ry tree, Krzy­sztof Pie­czyń­ski), Śli­wa (Plum tree, Grze­gorz Da­mięc­ki) and Cze­reś­nia (Cher­ry tree, Dar­iusz Ju­zy­szyn). The monks are cha­rac­te­ri­zed by an ex­tra­or­di­na­ry gift of emit­ting the scents of the trees from which they took their na­mes. The­se scents ha­ve ma­gi­cal po­wer, which ma­kes them an ob­ject of de­si­re among the com­mu­ni­ty of the town. The calm, or­der­ly rhythm of the mo­na­ste­ry's eve­ry­day li­fe one day is dis­tur­bed by the ap­pe­aran­ce of Na­ta­sza (Gra­ży­na Błę­cka-Kol­ska), the con­ser­va­tor of old paint­ings, to­ge­ther with her re­so­lu­te daugh­ter Gie­nia. Whi­le stu­dy­ing mo­nas­tic le­gends, Na­ta­sza finds the key to the fra­gran­ce - an aphro­di­siac, help­ing the lo­cal hair­dres­ser to win the he­art of fa­mous actor Ze­man (pla­yed by Bo­gu­sław Lin­da).

At the Gdynia Festival the film received the Gol­den Lions Award for its sce­no­gra­phy and the Sil­ver Screen Au­dien­ce Award. He was al­so ho­nou­red with se­ven Eagles - awards of the Po­lish Film Aca­de­my.



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A YOUNG FALLOW DEER POSING ON THE BACKGROUND OF THE CASTLE CHAPEL




he castle is located in the north­east­ern part of the old town, near the na­tio­nal ro­ad no. 46 le­ading from Opole to Ny­sa. The best way to park your car is at the Mar­ket Squa­re (Ry­nek), whe­re you are on­ly a few do­zen me­ters from the en­tran­ce ga­te.




1. F. Idzikowski: Opole - dzieje miasta do 1886 roku, Opole 2002
2. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kołodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
3. W. Kawka: Murowane wieże na zamkach księstwa opolsko-raciborskiego..., UJ 2014
4. A. Paszkowska-Witkowska: Zamek w Niemodlinie - dzieje i architektura, NTR 2018
5. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019
6. advertising brochures issued by Niemodlin castle


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Castles nearby:
Tułowice - medieval knight's castle, now a neo-Renaissance palace from 19th century, 6 km
Dąbrowa - Renaissance noble castle from 17th century, 12 km
Kantorowice - castle of the dukes of Brzeg from 16th/17th century, 16 km
Opole Ostrówek - Piast Tower from 13th century, 25 km
Prószków - the castle of the nobility from 16th century, 25 km
Opole Górka - relics of duke's castle from 14th century, 26 km
Chrzelice - the ruins of duke's castle from 14th century, 29 km
Moszna - eclectic palace from 19th century, 32 km
Krapkowice - the castle of the nobility from 17th century, 38 km
Krapkowice Otmęt - the ruins of knight's castle from 14th/16th century, 39 km
Przeworno - Renaissance castle from 16th century, 39 km




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text: 2020
photographs: 2020
© by Jacek Bednarek