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IMG BORDER=1 style=

CASTLE ROGOWIEC, THE REMAINS OF THE LAST DEFENSE TOWER



he beginnings of the Rogowiec castle probably date back to the last two de­ca­des of the 13th cen­tu­ry and are com­mon­ly as­so­cia­ted with the foun­da­tion of Bol­ko Se­ve­re (+1301), the ru­ler of the Du­chy of Swid­ni­ca and Ja­wor. Si­tu­a­ted high in the moun­tains on a hard to reach rock, the de­fen­si­ve sys­tem was to ser­ve to streng­then the su­pre­me au­tho­ri­ty in ve­ry spar­se­ly po­pu­la­ted moun­tain a­re­as, to­get­her with the for­tres­ses of Grod­no, No­wy Dwor, and Ra­dos­no it al­so for­med a li­ne of for­ti­fi­ca­tions a­long the sout­hern, still then con­ven­tio­nal, bor­der of the prin­ci­pa­li­ty. It is worth men­tio­ning that in the Mid­dle Ages a tra­de rou­te from Swid­ni­ca to the Bo­he­mian Na­chod led a­long the val­ley of the Ri­ver Ryb­na near the for­tress. Its moun­tain part, cal­led the Up­per Ro­ad, led through the Wal­brzys­kie and Owl Moun­tains, and fur­ther through the Dry Moun­tains, the Three Val­leys Pass to Mie­ro­szow, so we can as­su­me with high pro­ba­bi­li­ty that the ne­ar­by cast­les (Grod­no, Ra­dos­no, Ro­go­wiec) we­re al­so u­sed to se­cu­re or even con­trol traf­fic on this rou­te. In the do­cu­ments of the Cis­ter­cian mo­nas­te­ry in Krze­szow, on Sep­tem­ber 8, 1292, a re­cord was pre­ser­ved, which men­tions Rein­sko Schwenck­en­feldt as the ru­ling Horn­berch Cas­tel­la­nus. It is the ol­dest known sour­ce of in­for­ma­tion a­bout the cas­tle Ro­go­wiec.


CASTLE MOUNTAIN WITH A RUIN OF ROGOWIEC, L. RICHTER'S INTAGLIO FROM THE 40S XIX CENTURY


'SNIEZKA VIEW FROM THE CASTLE MOUNTAIN', F. VOGL'S DRAWING FROM 1850


t the be­gin­ning of the 14th cen­tu­ry the for­tress was pro­bab­ly cap­tu­­red and for so­me ti­me kept by rob­ber knights. In 1353, ho­we­ver, it cer­tain­ly be­lon­ged to the prin­ce, as in that year at the con­ven­tion in Vien­na, the then ru­ling Bol­ko II Lit­tle (+1368) wro­te it down to his nie­ce An­na Swid­nic­ka (+1362), mar­ried to the Czech king Char­les IV (+1378). In her na­me the cas­tle was ma­na­ged by prin­ce­ly cour­tiers, among ot­hers, in the ye­ars 1361-1374 the cas­tel­lan of Ro­go­wiec was the cham­ber­mas­ter of the Swid­ni­ca ma­nor Ni­co­laus de Bol­cze from the fa­mi­ly of the ow­ners of the cas­tle Bol­czow in Ru­da­wy Ja­no­wic­kie. In 1392, af­ter the death of the wi­dow of Bol­ko II, Prin­cess Ag­niesz­ka, the cas­tle ca­me un­der Czech ru­le, and lost its stra­te­gic sig­ni­fi­can­ce. It was soon han­ded o­ver as a fief to the pri­va­te hands of the knight­ly fa­mi­lies. Du­ring the Hus­si­te wars it was cap­tu­red and de­vas­ta­ted, and la­ter ma­na­ged by Franz von Po­ga­rell and the in­fa­mous brot­hers Hans and Ni­ko­laus Schel­len­dorf, the ow­ners of the cast­les Ksiaz and Ra­dos­no, re­pe­ated­ly ac­cu­sed of ar­med raids and at­tacks on mer­chant con­voys. Their pre­sen­ce may be as­so­cia­ted with cer­tain in­vest­ments that ha­ve been ma­de at the cas­tle hill in or­der to in­cre­a­se the de­fen­se of the for­tress, but to­day we are not able to cle­ar­ly de­ter­mi­ne the na­tu­re and sca­le of the work car­ried out at that ti­me. Ro­go­wiec re­mai­ned in the hands of the Schel­len­dorfs un­til its fall in 1482 (or 1497), when, as a re­sult of nu­me­rous com­plaints a­bout the rob­be­ry of its in­ha­bi­tan­ts, it fell un­der the pres­su­re of a re­ta­lia­to­ry ex­pe­di­tion led by the ro­yal troops com­man­ded by Ge­or­ge von Stein (+1497). Per­haps a fi­re­arm was u­sed to con­quer the cas­tle, what is in­di­ca­ted by frag­ments of can­non­balls and can­nons dis­co­ve­red du­ring ar­cha­e­olo­gi­cal ex­ca­va­tions. The des­tro­yed for­tress was dis­man­tled in the fol­lo­wing years by the lo­cal in­ha­bi­tants and o­ver ti­me it fell in­to com­ple­te ruin. From the 16th cen­tu­ry, the sur­roun­ding a­rea and the cas­tle we­re the pro­per­ty of the Ho­bergs (la­ter the Hoch­berg) fa­mi­ly from Ksiaz, who bought them from the Czech king Wla­dys­law Ja­giel­lon­czyk for a sum of 600,000 Czech gros­chen.


A RUIN ON A POSTCARD FROM 1898


'GREETINGS FROM ROGOWIEC', 1909



THE NAMING OF THE CASTLE IN THE PAST

* 1292 - Hornberch Castellanus
* 1318 - Hornsburg
* 1392 - Domschloss, Heinzetempel
* 1747 - Horn Schloss
* 1825 - Hornschloss
* 1918 - Hornberg
* 1945 - Rogowiec



IMG BORDER=1 style=

ROGOWIEC VIEW FROM JELENIEC MOUNTAIN (902 M ABOVE SEA LEVEL)



he castle was built of crushed, untreated stone on a rocky hill 870 metres above sea le­vel. Its ol­dest part is the 'high cas­tle' lo­ca­ted on the top of the hill, built on a rec­tan­gu­lar plan with si­des 20x30 me­ters, in the wes­tern top of which stood a cy­lin­dri­cal to­wer of last de­fen­se, so cal­led berg­fried, with a dia­me­ter of about 10 me­ters and the thick­ness of the ground walls ex­ceed­ing 3.5 me­ters. The li­ving spa­ce was for­med by a two-win­ged buil­ding oc­cu­py­ing the south-eas­tern part of the com­plex, me­a­su­ring 10x17 me­ters, ba­sed on a cur­tain which was the eas­tern part of the sto­ne li­ne of for­ti­fi­ca­tions, who­se walls ran­ged from 1 me­ter thick o­ver the wes­tern a­byss to 2.5 me­ters thick in the re­mai­ning sec­tions. In the 14th cen­tu­ry, a new 7x15-me­tre buil­ding was e­rec­ted on the si­te of a dis­man­tled eas­tern hou­se, with a vaul­ted cel­lar car­ved in rock. The buil­ding could ha­ve had a tim­ber fra­ming on the court­yard si­de and a cy­lin­dri­cal stair­case lo­ca­ted near the north-eas­tern cor­ner of the for­tress. Per­haps at the sa­me ti­me as the mo­der­ni­sa­tion of the 'high cas­tle', the hill­side was for­ti­fied by buil­ding two to­wers and a small ga­te to­wer in its south­ern sec­tor. The last pha­se of the fort­ress's de­ve­lop­ment pro­bab­ly took pla­ce in the mid­dle of the 15th cen­tu­ry and re­sul­ted in the de­mo­li­tion of a re­si­den­tial buil­ding on a 'high cas­tle' and its re­pla­ce­ment with a to­wer with ex­ter­nal di­men­sions of 9.2 x 11 me­ters. The cu­bic ca­pa­ci­ty of the sout­hern ga­te to­wer was al­most doub­led and the who­le cas­tle was sur­roun­ded by a se­cond li­ne of sto­ne for­ti­fi­ca­tions.


THE PLAN OF THE CASTLE BASED ON A. BOGUSZEWICZ'S PLAN:
1. HIGH CASTLE, 2. CYLINDRICAL TOWER, 3. RESIDENTIAL HOUSE, 4. XIV-CENTURY RESIDENTIAL TOWER, 5. GATE TOWER, 6. LOW CASTLE



mong the re­lics of the cas­tle pre­ser­ved un­til no­wa­days, we can dis­tin­guish the found­at­ions of a re­si­den­tial hou­se un­co­ve­red by the stu­dents of the Uni­ver­si­ty of Wroc­law, par­tial­ly re­con­struc­ted frag­ments of the pe­ri­phe­ral wall, small re­lics of the to­wers and the lo­wer parts of the cy­lin­dri­cal to­wer with a height of up to 3 me­ters. The en­ti­re pla­ce looks mo­dest, but in this ca­se the spe­cial ma­gic of the si­te is not the ru­ins of the for­tress, but their lo­ca­tion - Ro­go­wiec is the high­est si­tu­a­ted cas­tle in Po­land of­fe­ring ex­cel­lent Su­de­ten land­sca­pes. From the top of the moun­tain (870 m abo­ve sea le­vel) spre­ads a cap­ti­va­ting pa­no­ra­ma of the Wal­brzys­kie Moun­tains from the north, pic­tu­res­que sur­roun­dings of Unis­law Slas­ki from the west and a lit­tle o­ver­sha­do­wed by trees views of the Owl Moun­tains lo­ca­ted on the eas­tern si­de of Ro­go­wiec. Ad­mis­sion to the ruins is free.


IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

RUINS OF THE CASTLE ROGOWIEC



ogowiec is lo­ca­ted on a nar­row fo­res­ted moun­tain ist­hmus ri­sing steep­ly a­bo­ve the val­ley of the Ri­ver Ryb­na se­pa­ra­ting the Wal­brzys­kie Moun­tains from the Sto­ne Moun­tains, about 1.5 km west of Grzmia­ca vil­la­ge. The­re are se­ve­ral al­ter­na­ti­ve ways to get the­re and en­joy a ple­a­sant walk. The yellow trail leads from Wal­brzych to the blue trail on the Ko­zia Pass. It is an easy road, al­so su­i­tab­le for moun­tain bi­kes, ex­cept for a long, steep des­cent in­to the Ryb­na val­ley, re­qui­ring strong legs, strong hands and good qua­li­ty shoes. Time of the walk: about 2.5 hours. From Je­dli­na Zdroj leads the red trail, also mild, in the fi­nal climb it con­nects with the blue trail and from this point the dif­fi­cul­ty le­vel in­cre­a­ses slight­ly. About 3 km west of the cast­le the­re is a po­pu­lar hos­tel cal­led An­drze­jow­ka - the­re is a blue, red and yellow trail le­a­ding from the­re. This is de­fi­ni­te­ly the eas­iest and most po­pu­lar road, be­cau­se lo­ca­ted at an al­ti­tu­de of 800 m abo­ve sea le­vel An­drze­jow­ka can be re­a­ched by car, and then wit­hin two-three hours You can vi­sit the ruins and re­turn. (map of cas­tles)





1. M. Chorowska: Rezydencje sredniowieczne na Slasku, OFPWW 2003
2. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kolodziejski: Leksykon zamkow w Polsce, Arkady 2001
3. J. Lamparska: Zamkowe tajemnice, Asia-Press 2009
4. R. Luczynski: Chronologia dziejow Dolnego Slaska, Atut 2006


IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

ABOVE: A VIEW FROM ROGOWIEC ON THE LANDSCAPE PARK 'SUDETY WALBRZYSKIE'
UNDER: MALEPHYR MINE IN RYBNICA AND A VIEW OF SNIEZKA


Castles nearby:
Rybnica Lesna - the ruins of castle Radosno XIVw., 4 km
Walbrzych - the remains of castle Nowy Dwor XIVw., 10 km
Zagorze Slaskie - the ruins of a duke's castle Grodno XIV/XVIw., 15 km
Grzedy - the remains of a duke's castle Konradow XIVw., 20 km



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text: 2019
photographs: 2007, 2018