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IMG BORDER=1 style=

THE CASTLE IN SANOK, IN THE FOREGROUND THERE IS A NEW SOUTHERN WING WITH AN EXHIBITION OF ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI



anok is mentioned for the first time in Ipa­tiew­ski Ko­deks in 1150 whe­re oc­cu­pa­tion of Czer­wień­skie Gro­dy by the Hun­gar­ian king Gej­za II (d. 1162) was re­por­ted. Its exis­ten­ce was re­cor­ded on­ce a­gain in 1205 on the oc­ca­sion of a meet­ing held he­re be­tween the Hun­gar­ian king An­drew II (d. 1235) and An­na Eu­fro­zy­na, the wi­dow of prin­ce Ro­man Ha­lic­ki (d. 1205), and al­so in 1231, when in the Car­pa­thian Chro­nic­le its lo­ca­tion at the Hun­gar­ian ga­tes, i.e. ne­ar the moun­tain pas­ses, was in­di­ca­ted. It should be as­su­med that all the­se re­cords re­fer not yet to the cur­rent lo­ca­tion of the town, but ra­ther con­cern a set­tle­ment which in the early Mid­dle Ages o­pe­ra­ted on Ho­ro­dysz­cze hill, ne­ar the vil­la­ge of Trep­cza si­tu­ated a few ki­lo­me­tres to the north. At that ti­me, on the ca­stle hill, the­re may ha­ve al­re­ady e­xis­ted a for­ti­fied strong­hold, but of les­ser im­por­tan­ce than Ho­ro­dysz­cze men­tio­ned earl­ier. Its dy­na­mic de­ve­lop­ment should be con­nec­ted with the col­lap­se of the for­mer cen­tre of the lo­cal Old Rus­sian au­tho­ri­ty, pos­sib­ly cau­sed by the Mon­gol in­va­sion in the mid-13th cen­tu­ry. As a con­se­quen­ce, the ad­mi­ni­stra­tion was trans­fer­red to Sa­nok and then gran­ted town pri­vi­le­ges by na­tus Dux et to­tius Rus­iae mi­no­ris Bo­le­sław Ju­rij, which took pla­ce in 1339.


CASTLES SOBIEŃ, SANOK AND LESKO ON THE MAP BY WACŁAW GRODECKI POLONIAE FINITIMARUMQUE LOCORUM DESRIPTIO, 1579


he violent deathHe was poisoned. of Bolesław Jurij (d. 1340) was used by the Po­lish king Ca­si­mir the Great (d. 1370), who in the ye­ars 1340-41 car­ried out an ar­med in­va­sion, as a re­sult of which he in­cor­po­ra­ted the Sa­nok Land and its new­ly e­sta­bli­shed town Sa­nok in­to the king­dom. Soon, on his ini­tia­ti­ve, a mig­hty to­wer with thick walls with an un­der­ground pri­son was e­rec­ted in the north­ern part of the hill, and the who­le was surr­oun­ded by a de­fen­si­ve wall four el­bows wi­de (Jan­ko from Czarn­ków, Chro­ni­ca Mag­na). The con­stru­ction of the brick ca­stle was ac­com­pa­nied by in­vest­ments in the for­ti­fi­ca­tion of the town, as well as buil­ding of the Gothic church of St. Mi­cha­el the Ar­chan­gel. The in­ten­si­ve brick­lay­ing acti­vi­ty of Ca­si­mir the Great was pro­ba­bly due to the need to en­su­re the ne­ces­sa­ry de­fen­se of new land in the con­text of its pe­ri­phe­ral lo­ca­tion in the vi­ci­ni­ty of the Mol­do­van Land and the King­dom of Hun­ga­ry. The ca­stle was ad­mi­ni­ste­red by ro­yal sta­rosts, the ol­dest of whom was Piotr, men­tio­ned in 1352, fol­lo­wed by Be­ne­dik (1376-77), Tom­ko Na­shal­ka and Piotr Kmi­ta of Szre­nia­wa co­at of arms, voi­vo­de of Cra­cow and San­do­mierz, who held of­fi­ce in the ye­ars 1391-98. In 1366, King Ca­si­mir him­self sta­yed he­re for a long ti­me, and du­ring his reign he vi­si­ted Sa­nok three ti­mes.


VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE SOUTH, EMANUEL VON KROMBACH 1825


he castle had great moments during the reign of Wła­dy­sław Ja­gieł­ło (d. 1434). This is whe­re the wed­ding of the Po­lish king with El­żbie­ta Gra­now­ska (d. 1420) took pla­ce on 2 May 1417, be­gin­ning his third mar­ria­ge. The re­la­tion­ship be­tween Ja­gieł­ło, still wi­thout a de­scen­dant, and a 45-year-old wo­man met with cri­ti­cism and so­me­ti­mes e­ven mo­cke­ry of the pu­blic o­pi­nion, the most ra­di­cal voi­ce of which was the li­bel writ­ten by a bi­shop Sta­ni­sław Cio­łek, whe­re the au­thor com­pa­red El­żbie­ta to an old, ex­haus­ted stin­king sow. The dis­con­tent with the king's de­ci­sion was wi­de­spre­ad, as evi­den­ced by a frag­ment of no­tes by a cer­tain Biel­ski: The king, who was sup­po­sed to cha­se the ene­my, pre­fer­red to ma­ke a wed­ding in Sa­nok. He took El­żbie­ta, who had been kid­nap­ped be­fo­re by one Mo­ra­vian, and la­ter by a­no­ther, and then was with Gra­now­ski. No one knew why the king li­ked her, be­cau­se she was old and sick. It is not sur­pri­sing, the­re­fo­re, that when, after three ye­ars of mar­ria­ge, El­żbie­ta died of tu­ber­cu­lo­sis, the news of her death co­ve­red the ro­yal court and the who­le king­dom with deep joy, be­cau­se all to­ge­ther we­re hap­py that the dis­gra­ce of the king had been e­ra­sed and du­ring the fu­ne­ral pe­ople ga­ve a gre­ater o­va­tion than du­ring the co­ro­na­tion [...]. All dres­sed in mo­re fes­ti­ve clo­thes took part in the Queen's fu­ne­ral ce­re­mo­ny, cheer­ing a­mong lau­ghter and joy. After the death of Wła­dy­sław Ja­gieł­ło, his last, fourth wi­fe, a Rus­sian prin­cess Zo­fia Hol­szań­ska (d. 1461), al­so li­ved in Sa­nok. A clay to­wer was men­tio­ned at that ti­me, who­se na­me in­di­ca­tes the use of brick as a ma­te­rial for its con­stru­ction.


VIEW OF THE CASTLE AND THE TOWN FROM BIAŁA GÓRA, WATERCOLOUR FROM 1847


CASTLE IN SANOK OVER THE SAN RIVER FROM THE SOUTH, M. B. STĘCZYŃSKI 1846


t the beginning of 16th century the castle be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of Bo­na Sfor­za (d. 1557), who, al­though she had ne­ver been in Sa­nok, ma­de a de­ci­sion to re­build the re­si­den­ce in the Re­nais­san­ce sty­le. By or­der of the Queen, un­der the su­per­vi­sion of Mar­shal Mi­ko­łaj Wol­ski of Pół­ko­zic co­at of arms (d. 1548), in the ye­ars 1523-48 a ma­gni­fi­cent two-sto­rey re­si­den­tial buil­ding was e­rec­ted, as well as a new en­tran­ce ga­te and ro­yal bath­room, a num­ber of uti­li­ty buil­dings we­re ad­ded and a new well was car­ved. The sco­pe of work car­ried out du­ring this pe­riod was so wi­de that we can a­ctu­al­ly talk a­bout buil­ding a new ca­stle on the walls of an old Go­thic strong­hold. Its la­yout chan­ged du­ring the of­fice of Mikołaj Cikowski, who in 1558-72 en­lar­ged the li­ving spa­ce by ad­ding two si­de wings and for­ti­fied it with a brick to­wer. Just be­fo­re this se­cond re­buil­ding, the re­si­den­ce was ow­ned by daugh­ter of Si­gis­mund the Old and Bo­na, Hun­gar­ian Queen Iza­be­la Ja­giel­lon­ka (d. 1559). After lo­sing the ci­vil war and un­for­tu­na­te a­gree­ments with the Aus­trian Em­pe­ror Fer­di­nand Hab­sburg, Iza­be­la spent her stay in Sa­nok try­ing to re­gain the Hun­gar­ian thro­ne, which she suc­ceed­ed in the au­tumn of 1565. Sin­ce then, the po­li­ti­cal si­gni­fi­can­ce of sta­rosts' head of­fice has we­ake­ned. This was re­flec­ted in the re­du­ction of ex­pen­di­tu­re on its main­te­nan­ce and re­pair, which was par­ti­cu­lar­ly e­vi­dent in the ti­mes of ge­ne­ral im­po­ve­rish­ment that oc­cur­red in the 17th cen­tu­ry. The need to re­pair the walls was un­suc­cess­ful­ly re­por­ted by the no­bi­li­ty in the re­gio­nal coun­cils in 1616 and 1618, un­til in 1636 part of the build­ings slid down to the San Ri­ver.


LITHOGRAPHY OF MIKOŁAJ WOLSKI FROM THE MID-XIXTH CENTURY



STAROSTS AT THE CASTLE IN SANOK

Piotr (1352), Benedykt (Benedik, Benco, Bencone) from Sandomierz (from 1377), Tom­ko Na­schal­ka, Piotr Kmi­ta z Wiś­ni­cza (1391-1398), Kle­mens Mo­ska­rzew­ski z Mo­sko­rze­wa (1399-1400), Ści­bor z Oglę­do­wa (1400-1410), Wierz­bię­ta z Bra­nic (1412), Druż­ban­ta z Bra­nic (1418), Ja­nusz z Ko­by­lan (1420-1430), Kle­mens Kmi­ta from Sobień castle (1421), Mi­ko­łaj z Chrzą­sto­wa Chrzą­sto­wski (1430-1437), Jan Ku­ro­pa­twa de La­czu­chow (1442-1446), Woj­ciech z Mi­cho­wa (1446-1450), Mi­ko­łaj Pie­nią­żek z Wi­to­wic (1450-1474), Sta­ni­sław Pie­nią­żek z Wi­to­wic (1474-1493), Ja­kub Pie­nią­żek (1493), Se­ba­stian Lu­bo­mir­ski (until 1558), Mi­ko­łaj Ci­kow­ski, Je­rzy Mni­szech (ca. 1578), Sta­ni­sław Bo­ni­fa­cy Mni­szech (1602), Fran­ci­szek Ber­nard Mni­szech (1613), An­drzej Dro­ho­jow­ski (1652), Je­rzy Wan­da­lin Mni­szech (1661), An­to­ni Du­nin Wą­so­wicz (1745), Jó­zef Wan­da­lin Mni­szech



CASTLE ON LITOGRAPHY BY NAPOLEON ORDA, ALBUM WIDOKÓW 1880


espite the fact that some in­vest­ments we­re un­der­ta­ken later on the ca­stle hill, their sco­pe was not suf­fi­cient to pre­ser­ve the usa­ble fun­ctions of the sta­rost's seat and in se­cond half of the 18th cen­tu­ry ca­stle was al­re­ady in a ve­ry poor con­di­tion. After Ga­li­cia was sei­zed by the Aus­trian in­va­der, the new au­tho­ri­ties or­de­red to de­mo­lish ele­ments of the ca­stle's mi­li­ta­ry ar­chi­te­ctu­re, in­clu­ding walls, ga­tes and the to­wer, on­ly le­aving the re­si­den­tial wings, which we­re re­built and then a­dap­ted for of­fi­ces. In 1809 the ca­stle hill was tem­po­ra­ri­ly ta­ken o­ver by the Po­lish troops, which, un­der the com­mand of Fran­ci­szek Ksa­we­ry Kra­si­cki (d. 1844), he­ro­ical­ly de­fen­ded it against at­tack­ing im­per­ial re­gi­ments. The three pre­ser­ved wings of the main struc­tu­re sur­vi­ved un­til 1865, when the buil­ding was pur­cha­sed by the Aus­trian Go­vern­ment. It is worth men­tio­ning that in the mid­dle of the 19th cen­tu­ry the num­be­ring of the town's pro­per­ty be­gan from the ca­stle, so it was mar­ked with the num­ber 1. As a re­sult of the bat­tles be­tween the Rus­sian and Aus­trian ar­mies du­ring World War I, the south wing was de­stro­yed, and in 1915 it was de­mo­lish­ed. Al­so the for­mer moat was le­vel­led and dri­ve­way a­long Zam­ko­wa Street was set up. From that ti­me un­til 2010, the ca­stle buil­ding re­main­ed vir­tu­al­ly un­chan­ged.



COLOURED PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CASTLE FROM THE 1930S, IN THE PICTURE BELOW THERE IS A CASTLE WELL
AND A FRAGMENT OF THE WESTERN ELEVATION OF THE GRAND HOUSE


fter Poland regained its independence until the outbreak of World War II, the ca­stle hou­sed the Sa­nok Land Mu­se­um, which pro­vi­ded ac­cess to ar­cha­eolo­gi­cal ex­hi­bits, works of art, crafts, nu­mi­sma­tic items, books and do­cu­ments re­la­ted to the re­gion, ob­tai­ned in the field or do­na­ted by lo­cal pe­ople. For se­ve­ral ye­ars in the 1930s, Bi­shop Grze­gorz Iwa­no­wycz Ła­ko­ta (d. 1950) had his of­fi­ce he­re. After the war, he was ar­res­ted by Na­rod­nyj ko­mis­sa­riat wnu­trien­nich dieł SSSR and de­por­ted to gu­lag whe­re he died. In the 1930s, the ca­stle al­so hou­sed the Ro­ad Ad­mi­ni­stra­tion, the School Coun­cil, as well as apart­ment of the Sta­rost. After the Ger­mans en­te­red Sa­nok in 1939, the ca­stle was plun­de­red, and la­ter the Lem­ko Mu­se­um, ma­na­ged by Ukra­inian pain­ter Le­on Getz (d. 1971), was set up in its in­ter­iors. At that ti­me, un­til Ju­ne 1941, the Sa­nok ca­stle was lo­ca­ted op­po­si­te the Mo­lo­tov Li­ne, along the bor­der be­tween Nazi Ger­ma­ny and So­viet Rus­sia si­tu­ated a­long the San Ri­ver­bed. Thus, it be­ca­me a part of the for­ti­fi­ca­tions cal­led the Ga­li­cia Boun­da­ry Po­si­tion, and one of the links of the­se for­ti­fi­ca­tions was a con­cre­te bun­ker e­rec­ted un­der the ca­stle squa­re, so­me of which we can see to­day as part of the mu­se­um ex­hi­bi­tion. At the end of the war, the Ger­mans sto­le the sur­vi­ving me­mo­ra­bi­lia of Po­lish cul­tu­re; for­tu­na­te­ly, so­me of them we­re la­ter found in the vi­ci­ni­ty of Leg­ni­ca and trans­fer­red to the Main Ar­chi­ve of Old Fi­les and to the Rze­szów Ar­chi­ve. After 1944, the castle was used for various purposes to respond to the urgent needs of its time, including a military hospital and a gunnery. The first re­se­arch and con­ser­va­tion work be­gan in 1952, whi­le in the 1960s the Re­nais­san­ce wing was tho­roug­hly re­no­va­ted and the mu­se­um ex­hi­bi­tions we­re re­ope­ned. In 2010-13, the south­ern wing was e­rec­ted, oc­cu­py­ing the area after the 16th cen­tu­ry buil­ding de­mo­lish­ed by the Aus­trian au­tho­ri­ties du­ring the First World War. As part of re­vi­ta­li­za­tion of the cas­tle hill, so­me of the pe­ri­me­ter walls we­re al­so re­con­struc­ted and the foun­da­tions of Go­thic to­wer we­re top­ped up.


THE ROYAL CASTLE AFTER RENOVATION CARRIED OUT IN THE 1960S, VIEW OF THE WESTERN ELEVATION (1970)



he castle was built on a hill, 362 me­ters a­bo­ve sea le­vel, who­se east­ern slo­pe des­cends steep­ly to­wards the San Ri­ver and south­ern to­wards the Pło­wiec­ki Stre­am. Due to the lack of his­to­ri­cal no­tes re­la­ting to Go­thic strong­hold, its vi­su­al ap­pe­aran­ce and spat­ial ar­ran­ge­ment can on­ly be ima­gi­ned through ar­cha­eolo­gi­cal re­se­arch and to so­me ex­tent al­so on the ba­sis of ana­lo­gy with other con­stru­ctions of this ty­pe built by the last Piasts. We know for su­re that a­round the mid­dle of the 14th cen­tu­ry a to­wer was e­rec­ted in the north-east­ern part of the court­yard. It had a squa­re plan with a si­de of 10 me­ters, which at the height of 6 me­ters was cy­lin­dri­cal in sha­pe. Its height is un­known, but it can be as­su­med that it me­asu­red a­bout 20 me­ters, whi­le the thick­ness of walls on the ground floor re­ached 3 me­ters. Ac­cess to the cas­tle was de­fen­ded by a dry mo­at and a 2.5-me­tre thick sto­ne wall, al­though the 14th cen­tu­ry li­ne of for­ti­fi­ca­tions may still ha­ve no brick wall and the on­ly pro­te­ction was pro­vi­ded by earth ram­parts and a wood­en pa­li­sa­de. Per­haps as ear­ly as in the 14th cen­tu­ry, a one-bay re­si­den­tial hou­se was built in the east­ern part of the court­yard, as well as a smal­ler buil­ding in the west­ern part, the pur­po­se of which could not be e­sta­blish­ed (it is pos­si­ble that la­ter on, the re­cord ar­chi­ve was the­re).




PLAN OF A MEDIEVAL CASTLE ACCORDING TO M. ZIELIŃSKA: 1. GOTHIC TOWER, 2. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING, 3. NORTHERN DEFENSIVE WALL


n the years 1523-1548 Marshal Mikołaj Wolski car­ried out a thorough mo­der­ni­za­tion of the old mi­li­ta­ry sys­tem com­bi­ned with the re­con­stru­ction of the Go­thic cas­tle. The me­die­val east­ern hou­se was pro­ba­bly de­mo­li­shed then, and on its ba­ses a Re­nais­san­ce Grand Hou­se was e­rec­ted, with a si­ze of 12x43 me­ters, with bar­rel vault­ed cel­lars. It was a two-sto­rey buil­ding, top­ped with a ga­ble roof co­ve­red with ce­ra­mic ti­les. La­ter trans­for­ma­tions ma­ke it im­pos­si­ble to iden­ti­fy its de­co­ra­tion in de­tail, but it is known that both the doors and win­dows we­re or­na­men­ted with Re­nais­san­ce fra­mes and por­tals, among them the most be­au­ti­ful main por­tal in the north­ern part of the buil­ding, whe­re the co­ats of arms we­re pla­ced: in the mid­dle an eagle, and on the si­des the coat of arms of the Sfor­za fa­mi­ly and the Li­thu­anian Po­goń. This in­vest­ment was ac­com­pa­nied by de­mo­li­tion of the Or­tho­dox Church of St. Dmi­try and pro­ba­bly the re­mains of wood­en for­ti­fi­ca­tions, which we­re re­pla­ced by a full brick de­fen­ce cir­cuit with a new en­tran­ce ga­te. From the sta­ro­sty's in­ven­to­ry con­duc­ted in the ye­ars 1548 and 1558 we le­arn that the cas­tle at that ti­me con­sis­ted of two ga­tes, a draw­brid­ge, the Grand Hou­se and ad­ja­cent uti­li­ty buil­dings: a gra­na­ry, an ar­mou­ry, a kit­chen, a bath­hou­se and a bre­we­ry. A ba­ke­ry and a go­thic to­wer we­re si­tu­ated so­me dis­tan­ce from the re­si­den­tial a­rea.



PLAN OF THE CASTLE FROM THE END OF THE 16TH CENTURY: 1.GRAND HOUSE, 2. NORTHERN WING, 3. SOUTHERN WING,
4. FOUNDATIONS OF MEDIEVAL TOWER, 5. WESTERN BUILDING (ARCHIVE?), 6. DEFENSIVE WALL, 7. WELL


n the second half of 16th century, under the su­per­vi­sion of Mi­ko­łaj Ci­kow­ski, the south­ern and north­ern re­si­den­tial wings with a to­wer we­re e­rec­ted, thanks to which the main part of the cas­tle re­cei­ved a plan of the let­ter C ope­ned from the west. The­se wings we­re de­mo­lish­ed in the ni­ne­teenth and early twen­tieth cen­tur­ies by or­der of the Aus­trian au­tho­ri­ties, le­aving on­ly the old­est Grand Hou­se, whe­re the Re­nais­san­ce cha­rac­ter was e­ra­sed by re­mo­val of de­co­ra­ti­ve sto­ne­ma­son­ry of doors and win­dows. Du­ring the First World War, the old mo­at was le­vel­led and the brid­ge was re­pla­ced by an em­bank­ment with a ro­ad le­ading a­long its rid­ge. The south wing of the cas­tle was re­con­struc­ted in 2010-13, but the con­cept of this re­con­struc­tion is far a­way from the ori­gi­nal, stir­ring up strong feel­ings with its con­tro­ver­sial form.



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A GRAND HOUSE IN 1936 AND WITH CONTROVERSIAL SOUTH WING ADDED IN YEARS 2010-13



he contemporary appearance of the castle is a re­sult of wi­de-ran­ging re­con­struc­tion works car­ried out he­re at the turn of the first and se­cond de­ca­de of the 21st cen­tu­ry. The­se works ga­ve it part­ly a look re­fer­ring to the Re­nais­san­ce form from the mid-16th cen­tu­ry and part­ly be­ing a cre­ation of ima­gi­na­tion of ar­chi­tects ta­king part in its re­vi­ta­li­za­tion. From the ti­mes of the last Ja­giel­lons, the Grand Hou­se has been pre­ser­ved, whe­re the door por­tals and win­dow sto­ne­ma­son­ry ha­ve been re­con­struc­ted, as well as brick floors and wood­en ceil­ings, and along the wes­tern fa­ça­de, wood­en stairs with a bal­co­ny ha­ve al­so been built. On the foun­da­tions of the Go­thic Piast To­wer, dis­co­ve­red in the north­east­ern part of the court­yard, a ter­ra­ce was e­rec­ted to view the San Ri­ver val­ley and the north­ern part of the town. The sur­roun­dings of the cas­tle ha­ve al­so been cle­aned up, green­ery and new walk­ing paths ha­ve been laid in its vi­ci­ni­ty.


History Museum in Sanok
ul. Zamkowa 2, 38-500 Sanok
tel. 13 46 306 09
e-mail: sanok.muzeum(at)gmail.com

Opening hours / Prices



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A FRAGMENT OF WEST ELEVATION OF THE GRAND HOUSE


ince many years, the interiors of the former ro­yal re­si­den­ce hou­ses the His­to­ri­cal Mu­se­um, whe­re a­part from ar­cha­eolo­gi­cal ar­ti­facts, mi­li­tar­ia col­lec­tions, sculp­tu­re and paint­ing gal­le­ries, a va­lu­ab­le ex­hi­bi­tion of Or­tho­dox church art and the uni­que, lar­gest col­lec­tion of works by one of the most out­stan­ding con­tem­po­ra­ry ar­tists in the world, Zdzi­sław Bek­siń­ski, de­ser­ve spe­cial at­ten­tion. In the cel­lars the­re is an Ar­mou­ry - ex­hi­bi­tion pre­sen­ting the de­ve­lop­ment of ar­ma­ment start­ing from e­le­ments of the fight­ing kit of the Old Rus­sian war­riors dis­co­ve­red on the cas­tle hill, frag­ments of ar­mour of me­die­val knights and the se­ven­teenth-cen­tu­ry Po­lish hus­sars ri­de, as well as ex­hi­bits of cold steel and fi­re­arms. Among the shoot­ing we­apons, it is worth to fo­cus on the iron fal­co­net-ty­pe can­non bar­rel, which, ac­cor­ding to lo­cal tra­di­tion, was the spoil of war after win­ning the Bat­tle of Cho­cim a­gainst the Turks in 1621. Brought to Sa­nok, it was sto­len du­ring the pe­asant riots, trans­por­ted to the vil­la­ge of Odrze­cho­wa and then drown­ed in a pond be­cau­se of fe­ar of re­pres­sion. After the serf­dom was a­bo­lish­ed, the can­non was ta­ken out and pla­ced in front of the church, whe­re it was fi­red e­ve­ry East­er Sun­day, and ac­cor­ding to the re­cords of the in­ven­to­ry book it al­so ser­ved as a ...bor­der post. The ex­hi­bi­tion al­so in­clu­des mo­re con­tem­po­ra­ry we­apons, such as 19th cen­tu­ry flint­lock and per­cus­sion pis­tols, rif­les u­sed by the mu­ni­ci­pal po­li­ce at the turn of the 19th and 20th cen­tu­ry and ar­ma­ments from both world wars. Mi­li­ta­ry in­sig­nia are al­so pre­sen­ted, of which par­ti­cu­lar­ly at­ten­tion is drawn to the bad­ge of the 2nd Pod­ha­le Rif­le Re­gi­ment in the sha­pe of ...swa­sti­ka. The ex­hi­bi­tion is com­ple­men­ted by a com­bat and ob­ser­va­tion shel­ter, which du­ring the war was one of the points of the Ger­man li­ne of for­ti­fi­ca­tions on the then bor­der with the So­viet Union.


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EXHIBITION OF ARMAMENTS IN THE CASTLE CELLARS, BELOW THE SECOND WORLD WAR SHELTER


he exhibition of armaments is adjacent to an in­ti­ma­te ar­cha­eolo­gi­cal ex­hi­bi­tion re­pre­sen­ting three pre­his­to­ric e­pochs and ba­sed pri­ma­ri­ly on fin­dings dis­co­ve­red in the near­by vil­la­ges of Ba­chórz, Trep­cza and Pru­siek, as well as in Sa­nok it­self and in a­rea of ru­ins of the me­die­val cas­tle So­bień. The sto­ne age is re­pre­sen­ted he­re by, among o­thers, mam­moth teeth and the old­est cre­ations of hu­man hands: axes ma­de by our an­ces­tors from stri­ped flint, ha­tchets, hoe and pri­mi­ti­ve mul­ti­fun­ction tools. Ar­te­facts ma­de in the Bron­ze Age co­me main­ly from nu­me­rous 'tre­asu­res' hid­den most­ly in clay pots, con­tain­ing sim­ple kit­chen tools, we­apons and or­na­ments, in­clu­ding my­ster­ious twists co­ming pro­ba­bly from the Bal­kan Pe­nin­su­la. The pre­sen­ce of Cel­tic pe­oples and Van­dals in the Sub­car­pa­thian re­gion is do­cu­men­ted in the part of ex­hi­bi­tion de­di­ca­ted to the Iron Age, whe­re be­si­des old ar­ma­ments, frag­ments of glass ves­sels and or­na­ments, at­ten­tion is drawn by a gold coin with ima­ges of the god­dess Athe­na and Ni­ke and a sil­ver-gold coin da­ting back to the ti­mes of the Ro­man Em­pi­re. The ex­hi­­bi­tion is com­ple­men­ted by me­die­val an­ti­qui­ties, in­clu­ding le­ad se­als of Kiev du­kes, je­wel­le­ry of Rus­sian no­ble­wo­men, uni­que coins and cros­ses with a re­lic, which tur­ned out to be a frag­ment of me­te­o­ri­te. The part pre­sen­ting ar­cha­eolo­gi­cal dis­co­ver­ies is con­tras­ted with Gal­lery of 20th Cen­tu­ry Paint­ing, al­so lo­ca­ted in the cas­tle cel­lars, the co­re of which is com­po­sed of paint­ings do­na­ted by Sa­nok ar­tists Fran­ci­szek and Ma­ria Pro­cha­ska. De­spi­te the fact that ex­hi­bi­ted works we­re ma­de by fa­mous ar­tists such as Was­si­ly Kan­din­sky, Jó­zef Cheł­moń­ski, Ja­cek Mal­czew­ski, Ta­de­usz Ma­kow­ski and Pa­blo Pi­cas­so, their ar­tis­tic le­vel do­es not de­light, and it can so­me­ti­mes cau­se con­ster­na­tion or even em­bar­ras­sment. It seems that the works pre­sen­ted with­in neigh­bour­ing the Mar­ian Kru­czek Gal­le­ry meet much fon­der res­pon­se. It con­sists main­ly of re­mar­ka­ble sculp­tu­res and spa­tial com­po­si­tions, ma­de from ma­chi­ne parts, ge­ars, wi­re, shells, etc., found in junk­yards and bought at flea mar­kets, la­ter sha­ped in­to fai­ry­ta­le and fan­ta­stic forms cal­led krucz­ki to­day.


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FRAGMENT OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXHIBITION


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MARIAN KRUCZEK GALLERY


he space in the hall of the southern wing is fil­led with col­lec­tion of po­kuc­ka ce­ra­mics, con­sis­ting of se­ve­ral hun­dred ex­hi­bits. Ori­gi­na­ting from Po­ku­cie, a land in the East­ern Car­path­ians, se­mi-ma­jo­li­ca pro­ducts are cha­rac­te­ri­zed by mul­ti­co­lo­red de­co­ra­tion re­fer­ring to plant, ani­mal and ge­ome­tric forms, of­ten in­spi­red by an­cient and Ty­ro­le­an art. The most va­lu­able item of this ex­po­si­tion is a 19th cen­tu­ry ti­led sto­ve, be­lon­ging to the fa­mi­ly of Xa­we­ry Du­ni­kow­ski, with rich or­na­men­ta­tion show­ing sce­nes of e­ve­ry­day li­fe. Ethno­gra­phic re­so­nan­ce can al­so be found in the north­ern cham­ber, whe­re the ex­hi­bi­tion de­di­ca­ted to sac­red art of Ca­tho­lic Church pre­sents e­le­ments of de­co­ra­tion of the no lon­ger e­xist­ing Church of St. Mi­cha­el the Arch­an­gel, the old­est church in Sa­nok, whe­re the wed­ding of Wła­dy­sław Ja­gieł­ło and El­żbie­ta Gra­now­ska took pla­ce. The at­ten­tion is drawn he­re by nu­me­rous cru­ci­fi­xes with ex­pres­si­ve­ly sculp­ted ima­ges of Christ, a high-class sculp­tu­re of St. Ne­po­mu­cen and sac­red fi­gu­res of var­ious, so­me­ti­mes not ve­ry im­pres­si­ve ar­tis­tic le­vel, indi­ca­ting the folk o­ri­gin of ma­ny of them. This col­lec­tion is com­ple­men­ted by Ba­ro­que sculp­tu­res which for­mer­ly be­lon­ged to Car­me­li­te Mo­na­ste­ry in Za­górz (now in ru­ins), as well as 17th-19th cen­tu­ry cru­ci­fi­xes co­ming from Ger­ma­ny, Spain and Fran­ce. A com­ple­te­ly dif­fe­rent sty­le is cha­rac­te­ri­zed by the ex­hi­bi­tion lo­ca­ted in the Re­nais­san­ce hall, do­mi­na­ted by port­rait paint­ings with a gal­le­ry of Sar­ma­tian ima­ges, which in lar­ge part ca­me he­re from the Za­łus­ki Pa­la­ce in Iwo­nicz-Zdrój. A sig­ni­fi­cant part of this col­lec­tion is re­pre­sen­ted by paint­ings de­pic­ting mem­bers of the Za­łus­ki fa­mi­ly, as well as other fi­gu­res who liv­ed in the Sa­nok re­gion and held var­ious of­fi­ces he­re. Among them the most va­lu­able are the port­rait of Jan III So­bie­ski and the 17th cen­tu­ry ima­ge of a girl with a fan paint­ed by the Dutch paint­er Gij­sbert Si­bil­la.


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CRUCIFIXES AT THE EXHIBITION OF SACRED ART OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH


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ORTHODOX CHURCH ART GALLERY


he Museum has one of the largest and most be­au­ti­ful col­lec­tions of Or­tho­dox church art in Po­land. It con­sists of 1200 ex­hi­bits, which are ar­ran­ged on two floors of the cas­tle in such a way that they show the de­ve­lop­ment of Or­tho­dox and Greek Ca­tho­lic paint­ing and de­co­ra­ti­ve art in chro­no­lo­gi­cal terms, from Mid­dle Ages to the pre­sent day. An ex­cel­lent col­lec­tion of icons and li­tur­gi­cal ob­jects in­tro­du­ces us to the spi­ri­tu­al world of south-east­ern Po­land and Ukra­ine. Among ma­ny le­ading the­mes, the fi­gu­res of Christ the Pan­to­cra­tor (the Over­lord), Christ in the Dee­sis group, cha­rac­te­ris­tic Man­dy­lions, as well as var­ious ima­ges of Our La­dy with her most po­pu­lar ima­ge cal­led Ho­de­ge­tria, Christ­mas icons cal­led prazd­niki, nu­mer­ous li­ves of saints and won­der­ful re­pre­sen­ta­tions of the Last Jud­gment and Pas­sion. This uni­que ex­hi­bi­tion is com­ple­men­ted by an ico­no­sta­sis - a wood­en wall with three doors and rows of icons ar­ran­ged in strict or­der, as well as a col­lec­tion of cros­ses, old books and rich­ly de­co­ra­ted li­tur­gi­cal ro­bes.


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ORTHODOX CHURCH ART GALLERY


owever, visiting an excellent collection of sacred art is on­ly a fo­re­ta­ste of what a­waits us in the at­tic of the Re­nais­san­ce part and in the ex­hi­bi­tion spa­ce of new south­ern wing, whe­re sin­ce 2012 the gal­le­ry of works by one of the most in­te­rest­ing, most in­trig­uing con­tem­po­ra­ry art­ists Zdzis­ław Be­ksiń­ski has been a­vai­la­ble to the pub­lic. The mu­se­um, as the on­ly heir of the art­ist, mur­de­red in 2005, pos­ses­ses the lar­gest col­lec­tion of his works, ma­ny of which he per­so­nal­ly cho­se to be­queath them to his ho­me­town. The ex­hi­bi­tion of over 600 works co­vers the who­le per­iod of Be­ksin­ski's ar­tis­tic a­cti­vi­ty, be­gin­ning from ab­strac­tion and the a­vant-gar­de, which cha­rac­te­ri­zed his draw­ings and sculp­tu­res in the ear­ly 1950s, un­til the turn of the cen­tur­ies, when, fas­ci­na­ted by de­ve­lop­ment of di­gi­tal tech­niq­ues, he ex­pe­ri­men­ted with mo­dern forms of cre­ati­ve pho­to­gra­phy and com­pu­ter gra­phics. Ho­we­ver, the co­re of the ex­hi­bi­tion is a col­lec­tion of paint­ings re­pre­sen­ting the "fan­tas­tic" per­iod of paint­er's cre­ati­vi­ty, pre­sen­ting the most im­port­ant work in his en­ti­re car­eer. It be­gan in the mid-1960s, when the first draw­ings and oil paint­ings we­re ma­de, show­ing, in a de­pres­sing, pes­si­mis­tic au­ra, the wound­ed fi­gu­res, oft­en cau­sing an­xie­ty or e­ven hor­ror. The evo­lu­tion of de­mo­nic aesth­etics took pla­ce in the ear­ly 70's with de­ve­lop­ment of a night­ma­rish vi­sion of the world, so cha­rac­te­ris­tic of the art­ist's great­est works, al­though the au­thor him­self re­mem­be­red ye­ars la­ter that his go­al was simp­ly to paint pret­ty pic­tu­res. A sym­bo­lic clo­su­re of this col­lec­tion is the paint­ing tit­led Y5, the last in Be­ksin­ski's out­put, com­ple­ted on the day of his tra­gic death. Thanks to the do­na­tion, co­ve­ring not on­ly ar­tis­tic achie­ve­ments, but al­so com­pu­ter e­quip­ment, bank de­po­sits and pri­va­te ob­jects of eve­ry­day use, a frag­ment of Be­ksin­ski's flat in War­saw has been faith­ful­ly re­con­struc­ted in one of the mu­se­um rooms, in­clu­ding view the art­ist was look­ing through the win­dow. The ex­hi­bi­tion has been com­ple­men­ted by nu­me­rous pho­to­graphs and mul­ti­me­dia shows pre­sen­ting the pro­fi­le of this gre­at cre­ator of con­tem­po­ra­ry art.


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ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY



Zdzisław Beksiński was born on 24 Fe­bru­ary 1929 in Sa­nok, in a fa­mi­ly as­so­cia­ted with the town for se­ve­ral ge­ne­ra­tions. His gre­at-grand­fa­ther found­ed in the 1840s the Boi­ler Works, which la­ter be­ca­me a wa­gon-bus fa­cto­ry Au­to­san. His grand­fa­ther was a town ar­chi­tect, his fa­ther al­so work­ed for the ma­gi­stra­te, a ge­omet­ric en­gi­neer by pro­fes­sion.

He spent his childhood in Sanok, du­ring the oc­cu­pa­tion at­ten­ding a tra­de school and la­ter a high school. Short­ly after the war, as a re­sult of play­ing with un­ex­plo­ded bomb, he had an ac­ci­dent, as a re­sult of which he lost part of his thumb and fo­re­fin­ger in his hand; for­tu­na­te­ly, ho­we­ver, this ti­ny di­sa­bi­li­ty did not stand in the way of his ar­tis­tic suc­ces­ses in the fu­tu­re. After com­ple­ting the Fa­cul­ty of Ar­chi­te­ctu­re at the Cra­cow Uni­ver­si­ty of Tech­no­lo­gy, young Bek­siń­ski work­ed for se­ve­ral ye­ars in Cra­cow as a su­per­vi­sion in­spec­tor at so­cia­list con­struc­tion si­tes. In the se­cond half of the 1950s he re­turn­ed to his ho­me­town, whe­re he start­ed work­ing as a sty­list at the Sa­nok Bus Fa­cto­ry. The­re he was in­vol­ved in de­ve­lo­ping the sty­le of pro­to­ty­pe bu­ses (SFW-1 Sa­nok, SFA-2, SFA-3, SFA-21) and their lo­go­ty­pes.

Zdzisław Beksiński was spending his free ti­me re­ali­zing his ar­tis­tic pas­sions, ini­tial­ly fo­cu­sing on ab­stract forms of sculp­tu­re and draw­ing and on pho­to­gra­phy, which he quick­ly a­ban­do­ned, ho­we­ver, look­ing for new, mo­re a­de­qua­te me­ans of ar­tis­tic ex­pres­sion. In the mid 1960s, he bro­ke with the a­vant-garde, turn­ing to­wards fan­ta­stic paint­ing, most of­ten re­ali­sed on fi­bre­bo­ard with the use of oil paints. His first big suc­cess ca­me in 1964, when du­ring the War­saw ex­hi­bi­tion thir­ty of his works we­re sold in one day. Ho­we­ver, the na­tio­nal and la­ter world fa­me was on­ly brought to him thanks to the paint­ings, full of sym­bols, my­ster­ious con­tents and ca­ta­stro­phic at­mo­sphe­re, which cha­ra­cte­ri­sed his work du­ring the two de­ca­des of the 1970s and 1980s.

As a result of the Sanok authorities' de­ci­sion to de­mo­lish the Bek­sin­ski's hou­se, the ar­tist de­ci­ded to le­ave his ho­me and mo­ved with his wi­fe, mo­ther, mo­ther-in-law and son to a four-room flat in War­saw, whe­re he al­so ar­ran­ged his stu­dio. At that ti­me he e­sta­bli­shed co­ope­ra­tion with Piotr Dmo­chow­ski, who or­ga­ni­zed a num­ber of au­thor's ex­hi­bi­tions in Eu­ro­pe and Ja­pan; for ma­ny ye­ars the­re was al­so a Bek­siń­ski gal­le­ry in Pa­ris cal­led Ga­le­rie Dmo­chow­ski – Mu­sée ga­le­rie de Bek­sin­ski. The be­gin­ning of the 90's was cha­rac­te­ri­zed by a re­sig­na­tion from fan­tas­tic paint­ing and a fo­cus on mo­re sub­tle, less ex­pres­si­ve forms, which was cri­ti­ci­zed by his fol­lo­wers. At that ti­me, the first pho­to­co­pier and com­pu­ter ap­pe­ared in Bek­sin­ski's hou­se, ope­ning the next sta­ge of his ar­tis­tic a­cti­vi­ty, which we ha­ve u­sed to call com­pu­ter gra­phics no­wa­days, but this one was ba­sed en­ti­re­ly on pho­to­gra­phic pro­ces­sing, ne­ver on ma­king one's own draw­ings.



Zdzisław Beksiński was brutally murdered in his apart­ment on 21 Fe­bru­ary 2005, a few days be­fo­re his 76th birth­day. The mur­de­rer was the son of a wo­man work­ing for the art­ist as a hou­se­wi­fe, a 19-ye­ar-old Ro­bert K., who was help­ed by his 16-ye­ar-old cou­sin. The mo­ti­ve for the cri­me was rob­be­ry. Be­fo­re his de­ath, Bek­siń­ski do­na­ted all his as­sets and ar­tis­tic a­chie­ve­ments to the His­to­ri­cal Mu­se­um in Sa­nok, which u­sed them to or­ga­ni­ze an ex­ten­si­ve re­tro­spe­cti­ve of the art­ist's work in the cas­tle, and thanks to the nu­me­rous pri­va­te ob­jects and e­le­ments of equip­ment of the War­saw a­part­ment, it al­so fa­mi­lia­ri­zed with the art­ist him­self.

In 1958, the only son of Zdzisław and Zofia Beksiński was born, To­masz Bek­siń­ski - a co­lum­nist, trans­la­tor of Eng­lish (in­clu­ding film dia­lo­gu­es) and mu­sic pre­sen­ter of the Po­lish na­tio­nal bro­ad­cas­ting sta­tion. From his youth he ma­ni­fes­ted an in­te­rest in death; evi­den­ce of his ob­ses­si­ve in­vol­ve­ment in this sub­ject was, for exam­ple, the fact that at the age of on­ly 18 he hung his own obi­tu­ar­ies in the streets of Sa­nok. He ma­de se­ve­ral sui­ci­de at­tempts, in­clu­ding the last one, on Christ­mas Eve 1999, when he died after ta­king a sig­ni­fi­cant a­mount of drugs. The tra­gic death of Zdzis­ław, his son's sui­ci­de, as well as his wi­fe's ser­ious ill­ness in con­nec­tion with the sub­ject mat­ter of the art­ist's work ma­de the Bek­sin­ski fa­mi­ly so­me­ti­mes de­scri­bed as "cur­sed". Its War­saw sto­ry has been pre­sen­ted in Jan P. Ma­tu­szyń­ski's mo­vie The Last Fa­mi­ly with An­drzej Se­we­ryn in the ro­le of the bril­liant cre­ator.



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ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY, PAINTINGS REPRESENTING THE 'FANTASTIC' PERIOD OF THE ARTIST'S ACTIVITY




he castle is situated in the east­ern part of the town, on a hill abo­ve the San Ri­ver val­ley, just 100 me­ters north­east of the Mar­ket Squa­re. The near­est car park is at the foot of the hill, at Zam­ko­wa Street. Ho­we­ver, du­ring the se­ason it fills up quick­ly, so it is worth con­si­de­ring as an al­ter­na­ti­ve a much lar­ger car park at Ła­zien­na Street, on­ly 5 mi­nu­tes' walk away from the mu­se­um. Pe­ople tra­vel­ling by train after le­aving Sa­nok sta­tion should fol­low Dwor­co­wa street to the north­west, and then: Ko­le­jo­wa street and Ja­giel­loń­ska street as far as the Mar­ket Squa­re.




1. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kołodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
2. P. Kocańda: Badania nad pierwszymi murowanymi zamkami na ob­sza­rze o­bec­ne­go wo­je­wódz­twa pod­kar­pac­kie­go, Ar­che­olo­gie zá­pad­ních Čech 11 / 2016
3. A. B. Kutiak: Projektowanie w kontekście historycznym, kilka słów o sanockim wzgórzu zamkowym, 2016
4. Praca Zbiorowa: Zamek królewski w Sanoku, Muzeum Historyczne w Sanoku 2015
5. P. Strzyż: Nieznana lufa działa z Muzeum Historycznego w Sanoku
6. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019


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THE CASTLE IN SANOK TODAY, VIEW FROM THE WEST AND SOUTHWEST


Castles nearby:
Zagórz - the ruin of the fortified monastery from the 18th century, 9 km
Załuż - the ruin of the Sobień knights' castle from 14th century, 12 km
Lesko - the private castle from 16th century, 16 km




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text: 2020
photographs: 2019
© by Jacek Bednarek