THE CASTLE IN SANOK, IN THE FOREGROUND THERE IS A NEW SOUTHERN WING WITH AN EXHIBITION OF ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI
anok is mentioned for the first time in
Ipatiewski Kodeks in 1150 where occupation of Czerwieńskie Grody by the Hungarian king
Gejza II (d. 1162) was reported. Its existence was recorded once again in 1205 on the occasion of a meeting held here between the Hungarian king
Andrew II (d. 1235) and Anna Eufrozyna, the widow of prince Roman Halicki (d. 1205), and also in 1231, when in the Carpathian Chronicle its location at the Hungarian gates, i.e. near the mountain passes, was indicated. It should be assumed that all these records refer not yet to the current location of the town, but rather concern a settlement which in the early Middle Ages operated on Horodyszcze hill, near the village of Trepcza situated a few kilometres to the north. At that time, on the castle hill, there may have already existed a fortified stronghold, but of lesser importance than Horodyszcze mentioned earlier. Its dynamic development should be connected with the collapse of the former centre of the local Old Russian authority, possibly caused by the Mongol invasion in the mid-13th century. As a consequence, the administration was transferred to Sanok and then granted town privileges by natus Dux et totius Rusiae minorisBolesław Jurij, which took place in 1339.
CASTLES SOBIEŃ, SANOK AND LESKO ON THE MAP BY WACŁAW GRODECKI POLONIAE FINITIMARUMQUE LOCORUM DESRIPTIO, 1579
he violent deathHe was poisoned. of Bolesław Jurij (d. 1340) was used by the Polish king
Casimir the Great (d. 1370), who in the years 1340-41 carried out an armed invasion, as a result of which he incorporated the Sanok Land and its newly established town Sanok into the kingdom. Soon, on his initiative, a mighty tower with thick walls with an underground prison was erected in the northern part of the hill, and the whole was surrounded by a defensive wall four elbows wide (Janko from Czarnków, Chronica Magna). The construction of the brick castle was accompanied by investments in the fortification of the town, as well as building of the Gothic church of St. Michael the Archangel. The intensive bricklaying activity of Casimir the Great was probably due to the need to ensure the necessary defense of new land in the context of its peripheral location in the vicinity of the Moldovan Land and the Kingdom of Hungary. The castle was administered by royal starosts, the oldest of whom was Piotr, mentioned in 1352, followed by Benedik (1376-77), Tomko Nashalka and Piotr Kmita of
Szreniawa coat of arms, voivode of Cracow and Sandomierz, who held office in the years 1391-98. In 1366, King Casimir himself stayed here for a long time, and during his reign he visited Sanok three times.
VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE SOUTH, EMANUEL VON KROMBACH 1825
he castle had great moments during the reign of
Władysław Jagiełło (d. 1434). This is where the wedding of the Polish king with
Elżbieta Granowska (d. 1420) took place on 2 May 1417, beginning his third marriage. The relationship between Jagiełło, still without a descendant, and a 45-year-old woman met with criticism and sometimes even mockery of the public opinion, the most radical voice of which was the libel written by a bishop Stanisław Ciołek, where the author compared Elżbieta to an old, exhausted stinking sow. The discontent with the king's decision was widespread, as evidenced by a fragment of notes by a certain Bielski: The king, who was supposed to chase the enemy, preferred to make a wedding in Sanok. He took Elżbieta, who had been kidnapped before by one Moravian, and later by another, and then was with Granowski. No one knew why the king liked her, because she was old and sick. It is not surprising, therefore, that when, after three years of marriage, Elżbieta died of tuberculosis, the news of her death covered the royal court and the whole kingdom with deep joy, because all together were happy that the disgrace of the king had been erased and during the funeral people gave a greater ovation than during the coronation [...]. All dressed in more festive clothes took part in the Queen's funeral ceremony, cheering among laughter and joy. After the death of Władysław Jagiełło, his last, fourth wife, a Russian princess
Zofia Holszańska (d. 1461), also lived in Sanok. A clay tower was mentioned at that time, whose name indicates the use of brick as a material for its construction.
VIEW OF THE CASTLE AND THE TOWN FROM BIAŁA GÓRA, WATERCOLOUR FROM 1847
CASTLE IN SANOK OVER THE SAN RIVER FROM THE SOUTH, M. B. STĘCZYŃSKI 1846
t the beginning of 16th century the castle became the property of
Bona Sforza (d. 1557), who, although she had never been in Sanok, made a decision to rebuild the residence in the Renaissance style. By order of the Queen, under the supervision of Marshal Mikołaj Wolski of
Półkozic coat of arms (d. 1548), in the years 1523-48 a magnificent two-storey residential building was erected, as well as a new entrance gate and royal bathroom, a number of utility buildings were added and a new well was carved. The scope of work carried out during this period was so wide that we can actually talk about building a new castle on the walls of an old Gothic stronghold. Its layout changed during the office of Mikołaj Cikowski, who in 1558-72 enlarged the living space by adding two side wings and fortified it with a brick tower. Just before this second rebuilding, the residence was owned by daughter of
Sigismund the Old and Bona, Hungarian Queen
Izabela Jagiellonka (d. 1559). After losing the civil war and unfortunate agreements with the Austrian Emperor
Ferdinand Habsburg, Izabela spent her stay in Sanok trying to regain the Hungarian throne, which she succeeded in the autumn of 1565. Since then, the political significance of starosts' head office has weakened. This was reflected in the reduction of expenditure on its maintenance and repair, which was particularly evident in the times of general impoverishment that occurred in the 17th century. The need to repair the walls was unsuccessfully reported by the nobility in the regional councils in 1616 and 1618, until in 1636 part of the buildings slid down to the San River.
LITHOGRAPHY OF MIKOŁAJ WOLSKI FROM THE MID-XIXTH CENTURY
STAROSTS AT THE CASTLE IN SANOK
Benedykt (Benedik, Benco, Bencone) from Sandomierz (from 1377),
Piotr Kmita z Wiśnicza (1391-1398),
Klemens Moskarzewski z Moskorzewa (1399-1400),
Ścibor z Oględowa (1400-1410),
Wierzbięta z Branic (1412),
Drużbanta z Branic (1418),
Janusz z Kobylan (1420-1430),
Klemens Kmita from Sobień castle (1421),
Mikołaj z Chrząstowa Chrząstowski (1430-1437),
Jan Kuropatwa de Laczuchow (1442-1446),
Wojciech z Michowa (1446-1450),
Mikołaj Pieniążek z Witowic (1450-1474),
Stanisław Pieniążek z Witowic (1474-1493),
Jakub Pieniążek (1493),
Sebastian Lubomirski (until 1558),
Jerzy Mniszech (ca. 1578),
Stanisław Bonifacy Mniszech (1602),
Franciszek Bernard Mniszech (1613),
Andrzej Drohojowski (1652),
Jerzy Wandalin Mniszech (1661),
Antoni Dunin Wąsowicz (1745),
Józef Wandalin Mniszech
CASTLE ON LITOGRAPHY BY NAPOLEON ORDA, ALBUM WIDOKÓW 1880
espite the fact that some investments were undertaken later on the castle hill, their scope was not sufficient to preserve the usable functions of the starost's seat and in second half of the 18th century castle was already in a very poor condition. After Galicia was seized by the Austrian invader, the new authorities ordered to demolish elements of the castle's military architecture, including walls, gates and the tower, only leaving the residential wings, which were rebuilt and then adapted for offices. In 1809 the castle hill was temporarily taken over by the Polish troops, which, under the command of
Franciszek Ksawery Krasicki (d. 1844), heroically defended it against attacking imperial regiments. The three preserved wings of the main structure survived until 1865, when the building was purchased by the Austrian Government. It is worth mentioning that in the middle of the 19th century the numbering of the town's property began from the castle, so it was marked with the number 1. As a result of the battles between the Russian and Austrian armies during World War I, the south wing was destroyed, and in 1915 it was demolished. Also the former moat was levelled and driveway along Zamkowa Street was set up. From that time until 2010, the castle building remained virtually unchanged.
COLOURED PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CASTLE FROM THE 1930S, IN THE PICTURE BELOW THERE IS A CASTLE WELL
AND A FRAGMENT OF THE WESTERN ELEVATION OF THE GRAND HOUSE
fter Poland regained its independence until the outbreak of World War II, the castle housed the Sanok Land Museum, which provided access to archaeological exhibits, works of art, crafts, numismatic items, books and documents related to the region, obtained in the field or donated by local people. For several years in the 1930s, Bishop
Grzegorz Iwanowycz Łakota (d. 1950) had his office here. After the war,
he was arrested by Narodnyj komissariat wnutriennich dieł SSSR and deported to gulag where he died. In the 1930s, the castle also housed the Road Administration, the School Council, as well as apartment of the Starost. After the Germans entered Sanok in 1939, the castle was plundered, and later the Lemko Museum, managed by Ukrainian painter
Leon Getz (d. 1971), was set up in its interiors. At that time, until June 1941, the Sanok castle was located opposite the Molotov Line, along the border between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia situated along the San Riverbed. Thus, it became a part of the fortifications called the Galicia Boundary Position, and one of the links of these fortifications was a concrete bunker erected under the castle square, some of which we can see today as part of the museum exhibition. At the end of the war, the Germans stole the surviving memorabilia of Polish culture; fortunately, some of them were later found in the vicinity of Legnica and transferred to the Main Archive of Old Files and to the Rzeszów Archive. After 1944, the castle was used for various purposes to respond to the urgent needs of its time, including a military hospital and a gunnery. The first research and conservation work began in 1952, while in the 1960s
the Renaissance wing was thoroughly renovated and the museum exhibitions were reopened. In 2010-13, the southern wing was erected, occupying the area after the 16th century building demolished by the Austrian authorities during the First World War. As part of revitalization of the castle hill, some of the perimeter walls were also reconstructed and the foundations of Gothic tower were topped up.
THE ROYAL CASTLE AFTER RENOVATION CARRIED OUT IN THE 1960S, VIEW OF THE WESTERN ELEVATION (1970)
he castle was built on a hill, 362 meters above sea level, whose eastern slope descends steeply towards the San River and southern towards the Płowiecki Stream. Due to the lack of historical notes relating to Gothic stronghold, its visual appearance and spatial arrangement can only be imagined through archaeological research and to some extent also on the basis of analogy with other constructions of this type built by the last Piasts. We know for sure that around the middle of the 14th century a tower was erected in the north-eastern part of the courtyard. It had a square plan with a side of 10 meters, which at the height of 6 meters was cylindrical in shape. Its height is unknown, but it can be assumed that it measured about 20 meters, while the thickness of walls on the ground floor reached 3 meters. Access to the castle was defended by a dry moat and a 2.5-metre thick stone wall, although the 14th century line of fortifications may still have no brick wall and the only protection was provided by earth ramparts and a wooden palisade. Perhaps as early as in the 14th century, a one-bay residential house was built in the eastern part of the courtyard, as well as a smaller building in the western part, the purpose of which could not be established (it is possible that later on, the record archive was there).
PLAN OF A MEDIEVAL CASTLE ACCORDING TO M. ZIELIŃSKA: 1. GOTHIC TOWER, 2. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING, 3. NORTHERN DEFENSIVE WALL
n the years 1523-1548 Marshal Mikołaj Wolski carried out a thorough modernization of the old military system combined with the reconstruction of the Gothic castle. The medieval eastern house was probably demolished then, and on its bases a Renaissance Grand House was erected, with a size of 12x43 meters, with barrel vaulted cellars. It was a two-storey building, topped with a gable roof covered with ceramic tiles. Later transformations make it impossible to identify its decoration in detail, but it is known that both the doors and windows were ornamented with Renaissance frames and portals, among them the most beautiful main portal in the northern part of the building, where the coats of arms were placed: in the middle an eagle, and on the sides the coat of arms of the Sforza family and the Lithuanian Pogoń. This investment was accompanied by demolition of the Orthodox Church of St. Dmitry and probably the remains of wooden fortifications, which were replaced by a full brick defence circuit with a new entrance gate. From the starosty's inventory conducted in the years 1548 and 1558 we learn that the castle at that time consisted of two gates, a drawbridge, the Grand House and adjacent utility buildings: a granary, an armoury, a kitchen, a bathhouse and a brewery. A bakery and a gothic tower were situated some distance from the residential area.
PLAN OF THE CASTLE FROM THE END OF THE 16TH CENTURY: 1.GRAND HOUSE, 2. NORTHERN WING, 3. SOUTHERN WING,
4. FOUNDATIONS OF MEDIEVAL TOWER, 5. WESTERN BUILDING (ARCHIVE?), 6. DEFENSIVE WALL, 7. WELL
n the second half of 16th century, under the supervision of Mikołaj Cikowski, the southern and northern residential wings with a tower were erected, thanks to which the main part of the castle received a plan of the letter C opened from the west. These wings were demolished in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by order of the Austrian authorities, leaving only the oldest Grand House, where the Renaissance character was erased by removal of decorative stonemasonry of doors and windows. During the First World War, the old moat was levelled and the bridge was replaced by an embankment with a road leading along its ridge. The south wing of the castle was reconstructed in 2010-13, but the concept of this reconstruction is far away from the original, stirring up strong feelings with its controversial form.
A GRAND HOUSE IN 1936 AND WITH CONTROVERSIAL SOUTH WING ADDED IN YEARS 2010-13
he contemporary appearance of the castle is a result of wide-ranging reconstruction works carried out here at the turn of the first and second decade of the 21st century. These works gave it partly a look referring to the Renaissance form from the mid-16th century and partly being a creation of imagination of architects taking part in its revitalization. From the times of the last Jagiellons, the Grand House has been preserved, where the door portals and window stonemasonry have been reconstructed, as well as brick floors and wooden ceilings, and along the western façade, wooden stairs with a balcony have also been built. On the foundations of the Gothic Piast Tower, discovered in the northeastern part of the courtyard, a terrace was erected to view the San River valley and the northern part of the town. The surroundings of the castle have also been cleaned up, greenery and new walking paths have been laid in its vicinity.
ince many years, the interiors of the former royal residence houses the Historical Museum, where apart from archaeological artifacts, militaria collections, sculpture and painting galleries, a valuable exhibition of Orthodox church art and the unique, largest collection of works by one of the most outstanding contemporary artists in the world, Zdzisław Beksiński, deserve special attention. In the cellars there is an
Armoury - exhibition presenting the development of armament starting from elements of the fighting kit of the Old Russian warriors discovered on the castle hill, fragments of armour of medieval knights and the seventeenth-century Polish hussars ride, as well as exhibits of cold steel and firearms. Among the shooting weapons, it is worth to focus on the iron
falconet-type cannon barrel, which, according to local tradition, was the spoil of war after winning the Battle of Chocim against the Turks in 1621. Brought to Sanok, it was stolen during the peasant riots, transported to the village of Odrzechowa and then drowned in a pond because of fear of repression. After the serfdom was abolished, the cannon was taken out and placed in front of the church, where it was fired every Easter Sunday, and according to the records of the inventory book it also served as a ...border post. The exhibition also includes more contemporary weapons, such as 19th century flintlock and percussion pistols, rifles used by the municipal police at the turn of the 19th and 20th century and armaments from both world wars. Military insignia are also presented, of which particularly attention is drawn to
the badge of the 2nd Podhale Rifle Regiment in the shape of ...swastika. The exhibition is complemented by a combat and observation shelter, which during the war was one of the points of the German line of fortifications on the then border with the Soviet Union.
EXHIBITION OF ARMAMENTS IN THE CASTLE CELLARS, BELOW THE SECOND WORLD WAR SHELTER
he exhibition of armaments is adjacent to an intimate
archaeological exhibition representing three prehistoric epochs and based primarily on findings discovered in the nearby villages of Bachórz, Trepcza and Prusiek, as well as in Sanok itself and in area of ruins of the medieval
castle Sobień. The stone age is represented here by, among others, mammoth teeth and the oldest creations of human hands: axes made by our ancestors from striped flint, hatchets, hoe and primitive multifunction tools. Artefacts made in the Bronze Age come mainly from numerous 'treasures' hidden mostly in clay pots, containing simple kitchen tools, weapons and ornaments, including mysterious twists coming probably from the Balkan Peninsula. The presence of Celtic peoples and Vandals in the Subcarpathian region is documented in the part of exhibition dedicated to the Iron Age, where besides old armaments, fragments of glass vessels and ornaments, attention is drawn by a gold coin with images of the goddess Athena and Nike and a silver-gold coin dating back to the times of the Roman Empire. The exhibition is complemented by medieval antiquities, including lead seals of Kiev dukes, jewellery of Russian noblewomen, unique coins and crosses with a relic, which turned out to be a fragment of meteorite. The part presenting archaeological discoveries is contrasted with
Gallery of 20th Century Painting, also located in the castle cellars, the core of which is composed of paintings donated by Sanok artists
Franciszek and Maria Prochaska. Despite the fact that exhibited works were made by famous artists such as
Tadeusz Makowski and
their artistic level does not delight, and it can sometimes cause consternation or even embarrassment. It seems that the works presented within neighbouring the Marian Kruczek Gallery meet much fonder response. It consists mainly of remarkable sculptures and spatial compositions, made from machine parts, gears, wire, shells, etc., found in junkyards and bought at flea markets, later shaped into fairytale and fantastic forms called kruczki today.
FRAGMENT OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXHIBITION
MARIAN KRUCZEK GALLERY
he space in the hall of the southern wing is filled with
collection of pokucka ceramics, consisting of several hundred exhibits. Originating from Pokucie, a land in the Eastern Carpathians, semi-majolica products are characterized by multicolored decoration referring to plant, animal and geometric forms, often inspired by ancient and Tyrolean art. The most valuable item of this exposition is a 19th century tiled stove, belonging to the family of Xawery Dunikowski, with rich ornamentation showing scenes of everyday life. Ethnographic resonance can also be found in the northern chamber, where the exhibition dedicated to
sacred art of Catholic Church presents elements of decoration of the no longer existing Church of St. Michael the Archangel, the oldest church in Sanok, where the wedding of Władysław Jagiełło and Elżbieta Granowska took place. The attention is drawn here by numerous crucifixes with expressively sculpted images of Christ, a high-class sculpture of St. Nepomucen and sacred figures of various,
sometimes not very impressive artistic level, indicating the folk origin of many of them. This collection is complemented by Baroque sculptures which formerly belonged to Carmelite Monastery in Zagórz
(now in ruins), as well as 17th-19th century crucifixes coming from Germany, Spain and France. A completely different style is characterized by the exhibition located in the Renaissance hall, dominated by portrait paintings with a gallery of Sarmatian images, which in large part came here from the Załuski Palace in Iwonicz-Zdrój. A significant part of this collection is represented by paintings depicting members of the Załuski family, as well as other figures who lived in the Sanok region and held various offices here. Among them the most valuable are the portrait of Jan III Sobieski and the 17th century image of a
girl with a fan painted by the Dutch painter Gijsbert Sibilla.
CRUCIFIXES AT THE EXHIBITION OF SACRED ART OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH
ORTHODOX CHURCH ART GALLERY
he Museum has one of the largest and most beautiful
collections of Orthodox church art in Poland. It consists of 1200 exhibits, which are arranged on two floors of the castle in such a way that they show the development of Orthodox and Greek Catholic painting and decorative art in chronological terms, from Middle Ages to the present day. An excellent
collection of icons and liturgical objects introduces us to the spiritual world of south-eastern Poland and Ukraine. Among many leading themes, the figures of
Christ the Pantocrator (the Overlord), Christ in
the Deesis group, characteristic
Mandylions, as well as various images of Our Lady with her most popular image called
Hodegetria, Christmas icons called prazdniki, numerous
lives of saints and wonderful representations of
the Last Judgment and Passion. This unique exhibition is complemented by an
iconostasis - a wooden wall with three doors and rows of icons arranged in strict order, as well as a collection of crosses, old books and richly decorated liturgical robes.
ORTHODOX CHURCH ART GALLERY
owever, visiting an excellent collection of sacred art is only a foretaste of what awaits us in the attic of the Renaissance part and in the exhibition space of new southern wing, where since 2012
the gallery of works by one of the most interesting, most intriguing contemporary artists Zdzisław Beksiński has been available to the public. The museum, as the only heir of the artist, murdered in 2005, possesses the largest collection of his works, many of which he personally chose to bequeath them to his hometown. The exhibition of over 600 works covers the whole period of Beksinski's artistic activity, beginning from
abstraction and the avant-garde, which characterized his drawings and sculptures in the early 1950s, until the turn of the centuries, when, fascinated by development of digital techniques, he experimented with modern forms of creative photography and
computer graphics. However, the core of the exhibition is a collection of paintings representing the "fantastic" period of painter's creativity, presenting the most important work in his entire career. It began in the mid-1960s, when the first drawings and oil paintings were made, showing, in a depressing, pessimistic aura,
the wounded figures, often causing anxiety or even horror. The evolution of demonic aesthetics took place in the early 70's with development of a nightmarish vision of the world, so characteristic of the artist's greatest works, although the author himself remembered years later that his goal was simply to paint pretty pictures. A symbolic closure of this collection is
the painting titled Y5, the last in Beksinski's output, completed on the day of his tragic death. Thanks to the donation, covering not only artistic achievements, but also computer equipment, bank deposits and private objects of everyday use, a
fragment of Beksinski's flat in Warsaw has been faithfully reconstructed in one of the museum rooms, including view the artist was looking through the window. The exhibition has been complemented by numerous photographs and multimedia shows presenting the profile of this great creator of contemporary art.
ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY
Zdzisław Beksiński was born on 24 February 1929 in Sanok, in a family associated with the town for several generations. His great-grandfather founded in the 1840s the Boiler Works, which later became a wagon-bus factory Autosan. His grandfather was a town architect, his father also worked for the magistrate, a geometric engineer by profession.
He spent his childhood in Sanok, during the occupation attending a trade school and later a high school. Shortly after the war, as a result of playing with unexploded bomb, he had an accident, as a result of which he lost part of his thumb and forefinger in his hand; fortunately, however, this tiny disability did not stand in the way of his artistic successes in the future. After completing the Faculty of Architecture at the Cracow University of Technology, young Beksiński worked for several years in Cracow as a supervision inspector at socialist construction sites. In the second half of the 1950s he returned to his hometown, where he started working as a stylist at the Sanok Bus Factory. There he was involved in developing the style of prototype buses
(SFW-1 Sanok, SFA-2, SFA-3, SFA-21) and their logotypes.
Zdzisław Beksiński was spending his free time realizing his artistic passions, initially focusing on
abstract forms of sculpture and drawing and on
photography, which he quickly abandoned, however, looking for new, more adequate means of artistic expression. In the mid 1960s, he broke with the avant-garde, turning towards fantastic painting, most often realised on fibreboard with the use of oil paints. His first big success came in 1964, when during the Warsaw exhibition thirty of his works were sold in one day. However, the national and later world fame was only brought to him thanks to the paintings,
full of symbols, mysterious contents and catastrophic atmosphere, which characterised his work during the two decades of the 1970s and 1980s.
As a result of the Sanok authorities' decision to demolish the Beksinski's house, the artist decided to leave his home and moved with his wife, mother, mother-in-law and son to a four-room flat in Warsaw, where he also arranged
his studio. At that time he established cooperation with Piotr Dmochowski, who organized a number of author's exhibitions in Europe and Japan; for many years there was also a Beksiński gallery in Paris called Galerie Dmochowski – Musée galerie de Beksinski. The beginning of the 90's was characterized by a resignation from fantastic painting and a focus on more subtle, less expressive forms, which was criticized by his followers. At that time, the first photocopier and computer appeared in Beksinski's house, opening the next stage of his artistic activity, which we have used to call
computer graphics nowadays, but this one was based entirely on photographic processing, never on making one's own drawings.
Zdzisław Beksiński was brutally murdered in his apartment on 21 February 2005, a few days before his 76th birthday. The murderer was the son of a woman working for the artist as a housewife, a 19-year-old Robert K., who was helped by his 16-year-old cousin. The motive for the crime was robbery. Before his death, Beksiński donated all his assets and artistic achievements to the Historical Museum in Sanok, which used them to organize an extensive retrospective of the artist's work in the castle, and thanks to the numerous private objects and elements of equipment of the Warsaw apartment, it also familiarized with the artist himself.
In 1958, the only son of Zdzisław and Zofia Beksiński was born,
Tomasz Beksiński - a columnist, translator of English (including film dialogues) and music presenter of the Polish national broadcasting station. From his youth he manifested an interest in death; evidence of his obsessive involvement in this subject was, for example, the fact that at the age of only 18 he hung his own obituaries in the streets of Sanok. He made several suicide attempts, including the last one, on Christmas Eve 1999, when he died after taking a significant amount of drugs. The tragic death of Zdzisław, his son's suicide, as well as his wife's serious illness in connection with the subject matter of the artist's work made the Beksinski family sometimes described as "cursed". Its Warsaw story has been presented in Jan P. Matuszyński's movie The Last Family with Andrzej Seweryn in the role of the brilliant creator.
ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY, PAINTINGS REPRESENTING THE 'FANTASTIC' PERIOD OF THE ARTIST'S ACTIVITY
he castle is situated in the eastern part of the town, on a hill above the San River valley, just 100 meters northeast of the Market Square. The nearest car park is at the foot of the hill, at Zamkowa Street. However, during the season it fills up quickly, so it is worth considering as an alternative a much larger
car park at Łazienna Street, only 5 minutes' walk away from the museum. People travelling by train after leaving Sanok station should follow Dworcowa street to the northwest, and then: Kolejowa street and Jagiellońska street as far as the Market Square.
1. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kołodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
2. P. Kocańda: Badania nad pierwszymi murowanymi zamkami na obszarze obecnego województwa podkarpackiego, Archeologie západních Čech 11 / 2016
3. A. B. Kutiak: Projektowanie w kontekście historycznym, kilka słów o sanockim wzgórzu zamkowym, 2016
4. Praca Zbiorowa: Zamek królewski w Sanoku, Muzeum Historyczne w Sanoku 2015
5. P. Strzyż: Nieznana lufa działa z Muzeum Historycznego w Sanoku
6. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019
THE CASTLE IN SANOK TODAY, VIEW FROM THE WEST AND SOUTHWEST
Zagórz - the ruin of the fortified monastery from the 18th century, 9 km
Załuż - the ruin of the Sobień knights' castle from 14th century, 12 km
Lesko - the private castle from 16th century, 16 km