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IMG BORDER=1 style=

CASTLE IN KÓRNIK, A VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST



roman­tic neo-Got­hic re­si­den­ce, built on the ba­sis of a la­te me­die­val knight's for­tress, ri­ses up in the sur­roun­dings of the his­to­ric park. The first for­ti­fied ca­stle in Kór­nik was pro­ba­bly built in the fourth quar­ter of the 14th cen­tu­ry by the foun­da­tion of Wy­szo­ta, co­at of arms of Lo­dzia, bro­ther of the Poz­nan bi­shop Mi­ko­laj, and pro­ba­bly with his fi­nan­cial sup­port. At the be­gin­ning it was a brick con­struc­tion e­rec­ted on sto­ne foun­da­tions and si­tu­a­ted on a mound se­pa­ra­ted by a moat. It had the form of an ir­re­gu­lar qua­dri­la­te­ral with a cy­lin­dri­cal main to­wer in the north-east­ern cor­ner of it, with the dia­me­ter of around 8 me­ters, and a two or three-sto­rey re­si­den­tial buil­ding with the di­men­sions of 9x10 me­ters. The main to­wer con­trol­led the nort­hern ga­te­way to the court­yard, and al­so the ro­ad le­a­ding through Kór­nik from Poz­nan to Wro­claw. The ol­dest con­fir­med in­for­ma­tion a­bout the ca­stle co­mes from the year 1426. It is an act of con­tract sig­ned by the then ow­ner of Kur­nik, Mi­ko­laj Gór­ka (+1439), a ca­non of Gnie­zno, and the buil­der Mi­ko­laj from Poz­nan, re­sul­ting in the tran­sfor­ma­tion of the e­xis­ting buil­ding and in­cre­asing its u­sa­ble a­rea. In­si­de the pe­ri­me­ter walls, two three-sto­rey re­si­den­tial hou­ses we­re e­rec­ted with L-sha­ped plans. Two se­mi-cy­lin­dri­cal to­wers we­re ad­ded to the­se buil­dings, ol­der re­si­den­tial hou­ses and a ga­te­way buil­ding we­re al­so rai­sed. At least sin­ce the 1430s the ac­cess to the ca­stle was pro­tec­ted by a draw­bridge, si­tu­a­ted in the sa­me pla­ce as the pre­sent brick one. All new re­si­den­tial hou­ses, as well as the gra­na­ry sec­tion of the ol­der buil­ding, we­re ma­de in a tim­ber-fra­me con­struc­tion with ga­bled, shin­gled roofs.


RECONSTRUCTION OF A MEDIEVAL CASTLE, I.T.KACZYNSCY ZAMKI W POLSCE PÓLNOCNEJ I SRODKOWEJ


fter Mi­ko­laj's death, the Kór­nik es­ta­te was gi­ven to his ne­phew Lu­kasz Gór­ka (+1475), Voi­vo­de of Poz­nan, and when he died in 1475, the town and the ca­stle be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of his son Ur­iel (+1498), who, due to his poor health, was as­sig­ned by his fat­her to a cle­ri­cal ca­reer, crow­ned in 1479 with the di­gni­ty of a bi­shop of Poz­nan. At that ti­me, the fa­mi­ly pro­per­ty and be­ne­fits from hol­ding church ti­tles, as well as sa­la­ries re­sul­ting from the fun­ction of a Va­ti­can tax col­lec­tor and pro­fits from ban­king o­pe­ra­tions pro­vi­ded Gór­ka with e­nor­mous in­co­me. Ur­iel ma­de the main heir of his mi­nor ne­phew Lu­kasz Gór­ka (+1542), gi­ving him Kór­nik, Miej­ska Gór­ka, Sie­ra­ków and Czer­nie­jów. At the age of 17 Lu­kasz be­ca­me a Ca­stel­lan of Spy­ci­mierz, and when he was 26, he be­ca­me the Ge­ne­ral Sta­rost of Wiel­ko­pol­ska. With time, he grew to the le­a­ding fi­gu­re on the po­li­ti­cal sce­ne, as a clo­se as­so­cia­te of Zyg­munt Sta­ry, ta­king an ac­ti­ve part in in­ter­na­tio­nal po­li­tics and de­fen­ding the wes­tern bor­ders a­gainst the threat from the Teu­to­nic Knights. The cul­mi­na­tion of his ad­mi­ra­ble ca­reer was ap­poin­tment as bis­hop of Ku­ja­wy in 1538 (on the sa­me day he was or­dai­ned a priest and re­cei­ved the sa­cra­ment of bis­hop), for whom he re­sig­ned from the of­fi­ce of voi­vo­de. From his fa­ther and un­cle he in­he­ri­ted a hu­ge es­ta­te, which he mul­ti­plied by ro­yal grants in Wie­lun and Wron­ki, as well as Sza­mo­tu­ly and Tu­ro­bin in Chel­mno re­gion, which we­re brought by his wi­fe. Af­ter his death, the es­ta­tes we­re trans­fer­red to the on­ly son An­drzej (+1551), the ca­stel­lan of Poz­nan and the ge­ne­ral sta­rost, the ri­chest in­ha­bi­tant of Wiel­ko­pol­ska of his ti­me, who ow­ned o­ver a do­zen towns and o­ver a hun­dred vil­la­ges stretch­ing from Wiel­ko­pol­ska to the Rus­sia, as well as te­ne­ment hou­ses, squa­res and ma­nors in Poz­nan, Kra­ków and Lwów. An­drzej Gór­ka is al­so con­nec­ted with the re­con­struc­tion of the burnt down Poz­nan ca­stle and the trans­for­ma­tion of the te­ne­ment hou­se at the Poz­nan Mar­ket Squa­re in­to a Re­nais­san­ce pa­la­ce, to­day call­ed the Gór­ka Pa­la­ce.


IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

CASTLE IN KÓRNIK: ABOVE THE VIEW OF THE NORTHERN PART, BELOW THE VIEW OF THE SOUTHERN FAÇADE


n 1552 Kór­nik es­ta­te was in­he­ri­ted by Sta­nis­law Gór­ka (+1592), a phy­si­cal­ly han­di­cap­ped but proud, fier­ce and vio­lent son of An­drzej, in the fu­tu­re the Poz­nan Voi­vo­de. Du­ring the li­fe­ti­me of his el­dest bro­ther Lu­kasz, he kept a­way from big po­li­tics and con­cen­tra­ted his ef­forts on the re­con­struc­tion of the ca­stle, ma­king it a re­si­den­ce wor­thy of the Ja­giel­lo­nian Po­lish ma­gna­te. As a re­sult of works car­ried out in the se­cond half of the 16th cen­tu­ry, the exis­ting buil­dings we­re re­pla­ced by a three-sto­rey buil­ding for­med by their con­nec­tion, in which the ground floor hou­sed u­ti­li­ty rooms, the first floor - re­si­den­tial rooms with a re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve cha­rac­ter, and the se­cond floor - guest rooms and rooms for court­iers. The old de­scrip­tions show that the ow­ner's li­ving room was lo­ca­ted in the pla­ce of the la­ter Ge­ne­ral Room, and the di­ning room was lo­ca­ted on the plan of the 14th cen­tu­ry re­si­den­tial buil­ding, in the sa­me pla­ce as the Di­ning Room is now. The hal­lway oc­cu­pied the a­rea of the con­tem­po­ra­ry stair­case, cor­ri­dor and the Black Room, whi­le the Go­thic to­wer hou­sed the ow­ner's pri­va­te tre­a­su­ry and a small ar­se­nal. The buil­ding work was com­ple­ted in 1574 and sin­ce then the ca­stle has been fa­mous for its e­le­gan­ce and for­ti­fi­ca­tion. Soon af­ter­wards, Sta­nis­law Gór­ka, with cha­rac­te­ris­tic splen­dour, hos­ted in Kór­nik Hen­ryk Wa­le­zy, who was on his way from Pa­ris to Cra­cow for the co­ro­na­tion that was a­wai­ting him: The­re we­re plen­ty of food of all kinds, plen­ty of wi­ne and drinks, open gra­na­ries and cel­lars, and e­ve­ry day and night you could ta­ke wha­te­ver you li­ked from them. The king him­self hos­ted at the ca­stle [...] re­cei­ved as a gift be­au­ti­ful hor­ses, furs from ve­ry va­lu­a­ble Mos­cow fo­xes and ot­her things. The French gen­tle­men and the who­le ma­nor hou­se we­re al­so ve­ry well wel­co­med in the lo­wer ca­stle and re­cei­ved gifts. Can­nons we­re shot of­ten and the­re we­re ot­her dif­fe­rent shows.


IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

THE FIGURES OF A WILD BOAR AND A DOG GUARDING THE MAIN ENTRANCE DEMONSTRATE THE HUNTING PASSIONS OF THE FORMER OWNERS


IMG  BORDER=1 style= IMG  BORDER=1 style=

A MONUMENT OF TYTUS DZIALYNSKI IN FRONT OF THE CASTLE; IN THE PHOTO ON THE RIGHT - THE CASTLE BRIDGE


n 1592 Sta­nis­law Gór­ka died child­less and the fa­mi­ly of Gór­ka ex­tinct. A hu­ge es­ta­te with Kór­nik be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of his ne­phew Jan Czarn­kow­ski (+1618/19), who in 1604 han­ded o­ver it to his bro­ther An­drzej (+ be­fo­re 1619) in ex­chan­ge for the town of Wron­ki and eight vil­la­ges. In 1610, ho­we­ver, he sold the Kór­nik es­ta­te for 155,000 zlo­tys to Zyg­munt Gru­dzin­ski (+1653), a clo­se as­so­cia­te of Zyg­munt III Wa­za and an ad­vo­ca­te of the Pro­tes­tant re­li­gion, who ac­ti­ve­ly sup­por­ted Ger­man and Je­wish co­lo­ni­za­tion in Wiel­ko­pol­ska. In 1623, Gru­dzin­ski hos­ted King Zyg­munt with his wi­fe and son Wladyslaw, so it is li­ke­ly that the for­mer re­si­den­ce of the Gór­ka fa­mi­ly was still in a ve­ry good con­di­tion. With ti­me, ho­we­ver, its pres­ti­ge and con­di­tion de­te­rio­ra­ted, be­cau­se two sons of Zyg­munt, Alek­san­der (+1661) and An­drzej Ka­rol (+1678) had their own fa­mi­ly pro­per­ties and the seat in Kór­nik had the se­con­da­ry va­lue to them. The 17th cen­tu­ry was not kind to ei­ther Po­land or the ca­stle, which suf­fe­red par­ti­cu­lar­ly se­ve­re­ly in the years 1655-60, when the troops of the Bran­den­burg Elec­tor we­re sta­tio­ned the­re. Its con­di­tion im­pro­ved on­ly af­ter the pro­per­ty was ta­ken o­ver by the Dzia­lyn­scy fa­mi­ly in 1676, especially during the times of Te­o­fi­la z Dzia­lyn­skich Szol­drska-Po­tu­lic­ka (+1790). She took ca­re of the Kór­nik do­main, whe­re brought in Ger­man set­tlers and ma­de the ca­stle an ele­gant re­si­den­ce. To this pur­po­se, she com­mis­sio­ned a re­con­struc­tion of its ex­ter­nal fa­ca­de, to which two ri­sa­lits with de­co­ra­ti­ve do­med roofs and a flan­ked de­co­ra­ti­ve ga­ble we­re ad­ded from the front. The 16th cen­tu­ry Ital­ian gar­den lo­ca­ted south of the pa­la­ce was al­so trans­for­med in­to a fa­shio­na­ble French-sty­le park: The gar­den was fil­led with bird­hou­ses and wa­ter­works of va­rious sha­pes. He­re wa­ter was le­a­king from the mouth of a lion sup­por­ting his fo­re­legs on the arms of the Dzia­lyn­ski fa­mi­ly; in anot­her pla­ce streams we­re gu­shing from the head of a wha­le and from the mouth of a cro­co­di­le. Snow swans flo­ated on the ca­nal sur­roun­ding the ca­stle; pe­a­cocks and phe­a­sants wal­ked in the spa­cious court­yard of the ca­stle. Two hu­ge green­hou­ses in the gar­den con­tai­ned the ra­rest fo­reign plants.


A FRAGMENT OF THE VIEW OF KÓRNIK AND BNIN IN THE DRAWING BY A. SEABISCH FROM 1798, CASTLE MARKED WITH THE NUMBER 5



TEOFILA Z DZIAŁYNSKICH SZOŁDRSKA-POTULICKA

She was born in 1714. She was the hos­tess of the Kór­nik ca­stle in the years 1726-90. The dau­ghter of Zyg­munt Dzia­lyn­ski and Te­re­sa Tar­low­na be­ca­me an or­phan al­re­ady at the age of 11, which for­ced her to quic­kly be­co­me in­de­pen­dent and cer­tain­ly had a si­gni­fi­cant im­pact on her do­mi­nant cha­rac­ter and de­ci­si­ve­ness in ma­king e­co­no­mic and per­so­nal de­ci­sions in her li­fe. Af­ter two un­suc­ces­sful mar­ria­ges (her first hus­band Ste­fan Szol­drski died fi­ve ye­ars af­ter mar­ria­ge, her se­cond re­la­tion­ship with Alek­san­der Hi­la­ry Po­tu­lic­ki en­ded in di­vor­ce), Te­o­fi­la de­ci­ded to li­ve a­lo­ne, fo­cu­sing on ma­na­ging a hu­ge wealth and mul­ti­ply­ing it. Al­though she could not count on her hus­bands and their fa­mil­ies, du­ring the e­co­no­mic col­lap­se of Po­land she led Kór­nik and ne­ar­by Bnin to pros­pe­ri­ty. She a­chie­ved this by, among ot­her things, brin­ging Ger­man Pro­tes­tant co­lo­nists and Jews to the town, which ma­de her vul­ne­ra­ble to the ac­cu­sa­tion of sup­por­ting the in­fi­dels. In 1740, she par­tly re­pla­ced the feu­dal ser­vi­ce with rent. The ow­ner of Kór­nik had a re­la­ti­ve­ly gen­tle cha­rac­ter, so ma­ny no­ble fa­mil­ies asked her to ta­ke chil­dren to e­du­ca­tion, and pe­a­sants es­ca­ping from fo­reign vil­la­ges sought shel­ter in her es­ta­tes. Te­o­fi­la was al­so keen­ly in­te­res­ted in art, which in­flu­en­ced her de­cis­ion to trans­form the Kór­nik re­si­den­ce of the en­tre cour et jar­din ty­pe and to found gar­dens with mag­ni­fi­cent ar­chi­tec­tu­re.

Teofila Po­tu­lic­ka died at the age of 76, on 26 No­vem­ber 1790. Whi­le still ali­ve, ru­mours we­re cir­cu­la­ting a­bout her that she main­tai­ned im­mo­ral re­la­tions with men, in­clu­ding a lo­cal Ca­tho­lic pa­rish priest and a Lu­the­ran pa­stor from Bnin. Af­ter her death, she be­ca­me a fi­gu­re of le­gends, per­haps thanks to a por­trait of An­toi­ne Pe­sne in a whi­te dress han­ging in the Arms Hall of the ca­stle. In the 19th cen­tu­ry the lo­cal po­pu­la­tion be­gan to tell that short­ly be­fo­re mid­night Te­o­fi­la le­a­ves the pain­ting and pas­ses to the ca­stle ter­ra­ce, from whe­re exac­tly at mid­night she is ta­ken for a ri­de in the park by a knight on a horse. They're both going around the park al­leys to se­pa­ra­te at dawn. The knight dis­appe­ars and the la­dy re­turns to the Arms Room on the pain­ting. To­day, the ca­stle gui­des wil­lin­gly point out the tra­ces of wo­men's heels on the floor un­der the pic­ture of a whi­te la­dy, which are sup­po­sed to pro­ve the au­then­ti­ci­ty of this sto­ry.




CASTLE AFTER BAROQUE REMODELING: THE ABOVE VIEW PUBLISHED IN 1835, BELOW THE LITHOGRAPH REPRODUCED IN
WSPOMNIENIA WIELKOPOLSKI... BY E. RACZYNSKI FROM 1842


n 1790 Kór­nik and Bnin be­ca­me the pro­per­ty of the on­ly son of Te­o­fi­la, Fe­liks Szol­drski (+1795), and af­ter his child­less death they pas­sed in­to the hands of a dis­tant re­la­ti­ve Wi­ktor Szol­drski (+1830), a jud­ge of the tri­bu­nal, one of the ri­chest ma­gna­tes in Wiel­ko­pol­ska. This in­he­ri­tan­ce was quest­io­ned by the Dzia­lyn­ski bro­thers and af­ter a long trial Ksa­we­ry, Count Dzia­lyn­ski (+1819) re­gai­ned Kór­nik in 1801. Pre­vious­ly, ho­we­ver, court dis­pu­tes had led to the de­par­tu­re of the Szol­drski fa­mi­ly from the re­si­den­ce and its ne­gli­gen­ce, which la­ter deep­ened through the le­ase of the ca­stle and its use as mi­li­ta­ry wa­re­hou­ses. In 1826, Ty­tus Adam, Count Dzia­lyn­ski (+1861) be­ca­me the heir of the Kór­nik esta­te. The aris­to­crat, who was be­lo­ved in his na­ti­ve past, de­ci­ded to trans­form his re­si­den­ce in the neo-Got­hic sty­le. He had a ro­man­tic vi­sion of sha­ping it in the la­te me­die­val sty­le, equip­ped with an ar­mou­ry, li­bra­ry rooms, de­co­ra­ted with the coats of arms of Po­lish and Li­thu­a­nian fa­mi­lies. The first re­con­struc­tion pro­jects we­re pre­pa­red by two Ita­lian ar­chi­tects: An­to­ni Cor­ra­zi and Hen­ri Mar­co­ni. Ho­we­ver, Dzia­lyn­ski did not li­ke the ex­ces­si­ve­ly de­co­ra­ti­ve ide­as of the Ita­lians, so in 1828 he as­ked the Ber­lin ar­chi­tect Karl Frie­drich Schin­kel for help, and the lat­ter pro­po­sed a much mo­re raw de­sign ba­sed on the aes­the­tics of Neo-Go­thic En­glish ar­chi­tec­tu­re. The work be­gan soon, but it was stop­ped quick­ly due to the out­break of the No­vem­ber Up­ri­sing, in which Ty­tus took an ac­ti­ve part, for which he was sen­ten­ced by the Prus­sian au­tho­ri­ties and his pro­per­ty was con­fis­ca­ted. Seek­ing shel­ter from pri­son, Dzia­lyn­ski ini­tial­ly sta­yed in Pa­ris, then in Kra­kow, and then in smal­ler fa­mi­ly esta­tes, whe­re he en­ti­re­ly de­vo­ted him­self to his col­lec­tor's pas­sion, col­lec­ting Po­lish mi­li­ta­ry, old prints, orien­tal and na­tio­nal me­mo­ra­bi­lia. Af­ter sta­bi­li­sing the po­li­ti­cal si­tu­a­tion and an­nul­ling his sen­ten­ce, he brought an ac­tion for the re­sti­tu­tion of the sei­zed as­sets that he had won. In 1838 he re­tur­ned to Kór­nik and fi­ve years la­ter the buil­ding works star­ted.


UNREALISED ITALIAN PROJECT OF CASTLE RECONSTRUCTION FROM THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY



TYTUS DZIALYNSKI

He was the son of Ksa­we­ry Dzia­lyn­ski and Ju­sty­na Dzie­du­szy­cka. He was born in 1796 in the fa­mi­ly pa­la­ce at the Old Ma­rket Squa­re in Poz­nan, whe­re he spent the first 11 ye­ars of his li­fe. In 1807 he mo­ved to Ber­lin, then to Pa­ris and fi­nal­ly to Pra­gue, whe­re he stu­died hu­ma­ni­ties and tech­ni­cal scien­ces. Af­ter re­tur­ning to Wiel­ko­pol­ska, he be­gan to or­ga­ni­ze the fa­mi­ly book col­lec­tion and ar­chi­ve in Ko­na­rze­wo, which trig­ge­red his in­te­rest in hi­sto­ri­cal sour­ces. That pas­sion for col­lec­ting ma­nu­scripts and old prints ac­com­pa­nied him to the end of his li­fe. Ty­tus was one of the first Wiel­ko­pol­ska ci­ti­zens to vo­lun­teer to fight in the no­vem­ber u­pri­sing, whe­re he ini­tial­ly ser­ved as a lieu­te­nant in a re­gi­ment of hor­se shoo­ters, and then he found his way to the head­quar­ters of the chief com­man­der, ser­ving as an as­sis­tant of Ge­ne­ral Skrzy­nec­ki. For his ac­ti­ve par­ti­ci­pa­tion in the up­ri­sing, he was pu­nis­hed by the Prus­sian au­tho­ri­ties with the con­fis­ca­tion of his pro­per­ty; he him­self es­ca­ped - first he sta­yed in Cra­cow, then hid in the e­sta­te of his wi­fe in Ole­szy­ce near Ja­ro­slaw. In 1839 he won a law­suit a­gainst the Prus­sian go­vern­ment for the re­sti­tu­tion of his pro­per­ty and re­tur­ned to Wiel­ko­pol­ska. From that ti­me on, he li­ved in Kór­nik and Poz­nan al­ter­na­te­ly, de­ve­lo­ping so­cial and cul­tu­ral ac­ti­vi­ty. Af­ter the Spring of Na­tions (1848), du­ring which he sup­por­ted the re­vo­lu­tio­na­ries, he was im­pri­so­ned in the Poz­nan for­tress, but soon af­ter he was re­le­ased and then he took de­ci­sion to gi­ve up his in­ten­si­ve po­li­ti­cal li­fe. He chan­ged his mind in 1858, when he ag­reed to run for par­lia­men­ta­ry e­lec­tions, ho­ping to chan­ge the po­li­cy of Prus­sia in re­la­tion to Po­les.

Dzia­lyn­ski paid a lot of at­ten­tion to the de­ve­lop­ment of Po­lish crafts, in­dus­try and e­co­no­my, as he saw in them the ho­pe of main­tai­ning na­tio­nal iden­ti­ty. He trai­ned Po­lish craft­smen at his own ex­pen­se, or­ga­ni­zed ex­hi­bi­tions of Po­lish pro­ducts and gar­den shows. He was one of the foun­ders and pre­si­dent of the In­dus­trial So­cie­ty. He cre­ated a park in Kór­nik, whe­re he ac­cli­ma­ti­zed va­rious spe­cies of trees and shrubs, in a na­tu­ral en­vi­ron­ment not gro­wing on Po­lish lands, and he did it with a view to the fu­tu­re agri­cul­tu­ral u­ni­ver­si­ty (he did not ma­nage to re­ali­ze this idea). In or­der to pro­tect the na­me Kurnik from ger­ma­ni­za­tion, he chan­ged it to Kór­nik. He died sud­den­ly at night from 11 to 12 April 1861 and was bu­ried in the fa­mi­ly crypt of the Kór­nik church.




THE WESTERN (HIGHER) AND SOUTHERN FACADES OF THE CASTLE ON THE PROJECTS OF K.F. SCHINKEL


he re­con­struc­tion de­pri­ved the pa­la­ce of its la­te ba­ro­que cha­rac­ter acqui­red in the 18th cen­tu­ry, and ga­ve the ap­pe­aran­ce of a ro­man­tic buil­ding in the En­glish Got­hic sty­le with re­mi­nis­cen­ces of orien­tal ar­chi­te­ctu­re. The te­chnic­al­ly e­du­ca­ted host did not im­ple­ment any of the plans pre­vious­ly pro­po­sed to him, but ba­sed on the Schin­kel pro­ject, aban­do­ning the in­ten­ded Prus­sian re­gu­la­ri­ty and sym­met­ry, and in re­turn in­tro­du­cing so­me of his own ele­ments gi­ving the buil­ding a de­fen­si­ve cha­rac­ter. The sil­hou­et­te of the ca­stle was in­cre­a­sed by one sto­rey and crow­ned with a cre­nel­la­tion. Log­gias, tur­rets and bays we­re in­te­gra­ted in­to its bo­dy, and the do­mi­nant fe­a­tu­re was a tall brick to­wer with blanks and a smal­ler slen­der tur­ret, ri­sing a­bo­ve its tops. In front of the nort­hern fa­ça­de a small bar­bi­can was e­rec­ted (de­mo­lis­hed due to the crac­king walls in 1937), whi­le on the sout­hern si­de two re­ctan­gu­lar to­wers we­re e­rec­ted in the cor­ners, and a wi­de ri­sa­lit in the cen­tre, ac­cen­tu­a­ted by a mo­nu­men­tal ogi­ve ar­ca­de, which ga­ve this part of the buil­ding a sligh­tly e­xo­tic cha­rac­ter. Ty­tus Dzia­lyn­ski wro­te a­bout this part of the ca­stle to his daug­hter Jad­wi­ga: Cy­bul­ski's dra­wing is ba­sed on In­dia­nis­ms and Got­hi­cism, and in my eyes it is the most be­au­ti­ful ar­chi­tec­tu­ral cre­ation you can ima­gi­ne. You will ha­ve both a bal­co­ny, an ex­hi­bi­tion and a vaul­ted co­ver of the hig­hest e­le­gan­ce. Wan­ting to ma­ke your mo­ther hap­pier, the­re will be a vaul­ted ex­hi­bi­tion, but not li­ke in Flo­ren­ce, but li­ke in Ar­jun Mur­bud­di near Be­na­res. In the plan­ning of the in­ter­ior of the ca­stle, the hal­lway, di­vi­ding the buil­ding a­long the trans­ver­se axis, has un­der­gone the gre­a­test chan­ges. It was di­vi­ded by a wall, ob­tai­ning a new cham­ber on the south si­de, whi­le the re­mai­ning part of the hal­lway was nar­ro­wed, thanks to which on its si­des the­re was a pla­ce for wa­re­hou­ses and a des­cent to cel­lars. On the first floor, on the south side, two ad­joi­ning cham­bers we­re con­nec­ted to form one two-sto­rey room, de­co­ra­ted in Mau­ri­ta­nian sty­le and in­ten­ded for mu­se­um col­lec­tions. The who­le in­ter­ior and ex­ter­ior of the buil­ding has been re­de­co­ra­ted with new doors, mar­quet­ry floors, got­hic vaults and de­co­ra­tive cei­lings. It is worth men­tio­ning that on­ly po­lish crafts­men and ar­tists we­re em­plo­yed by Dzia­lyn­ski for fi­nis­hing works. He him­self took a di­rect part in in­ter­ior de­sign works, e.g. he per­so­nal­ly car­ved a wood­en ba­lus­tra­de of stairs. In the opi­nion of the ow­ner, re­­built ca­stle was sup­po­sed to be a san­ctu­a­ry of Po­lish­ness, and its Got­hic co­stu­me em­pha­si­zed the an­ti­qui­ty of the Dzia­lyn­ski fa­mi­ly.


VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE WEST, TYGODNIK ILUSTROWANY 1860


CASTLE ON LITHOGRAPHY BY N. ORDA, ALBUM WIDOKÓW 1880


n his re­si­den­ce, Ty­tus Dzia­lyn­ski saw the pla­ce whe­re na­tio­nal mo­nu­ments we­re sto­red. He al­so em­pha­siz­ed ma­ny ti­mes that he trans­for­med the ca­stle, ex­cel­lent­ly equip­ped it and col­lec­ted va­lu­a­ble works of art in it not for the glo­ry of the na­me but to pro­tect from de­struc­tion and dis­per­sion what in the era of the par­ti­tions of Po­land com­me­mo­ra­tes the his­to­ry and cul­tu­re of his count­ry. The re­con­struc­tion of the ca­stle was con­ti­nu­ed by the son Jan Kan­ty, Count Dzia­lyn­ski (+1880), who ma­de the Kór­nik col­lec­tion a­vai­la­ble to his clo­sest fa­mi­ly, friends and in­vi­ted guests, but al­so to ot­her pe­o­ple, pro­vi­ded that they ap­plied to him with a writ­ten re­quest for ac­cess to the col­lec­tion. Fol­lo­wing his fat­her's exam­ple, the young heir par­ti­ci­pa­ted in ano­ther na­tio­nal up­ri­sing, which was the Ja­nu­ary Up­ri­sing, and as a re­sult was for­ced to emi­gra­te, which did not pre­vent him from being sen­ten­ced to death in ab­sen­tia. The sen­ten­ce was an­nul­led ten years la­ter, but the ow­ner re­tur­ning from a­broad was no lon­ger fi­nan­cial­ly ab­le to meet the ex­pen­ses for the con­ti­nu­a­tion of work, so in 1880 this ef­fort was ta­ken o­ver by his nep­hew and heir Wla­dy­slaw, Count Za­moy­ski (+1924), the tra­vel­ler, a great lo­ver of the Ta­tra Moun­tains and the ow­ner of a si­gni­fi­cant part of them. He spent a long ti­me try­ing to or­ga­ni­ze the af­fairs of the pro­per­ty, da­ma­ged by the col­lec­tor's ac­ti­vi­ty of the Dzia­lyn­ski fa­mi­ly and Prus­sian re­pres­sions re­sul­ting from the pa­trio­tic at­ti­tu­de of the for­mer ow­ners. In 1924, just be­fo­re his death, Za­moy­ski ga­ve all his pro­per­ty to the Po­lish na­tion, in­clu­ding a ca­stle fil­led with works of art and a won­der­ful li­bra­ry. The fa­mi­ly re­si­den­ce was de­si­gna­ted as the seat of the mu­se­um, de­spi­te the fact that Wla­dy­slaw's sis­ter Ma­ria Za­moy­ska (+1937) still li­ved the­re.



MAURITANIAN HALL IN PHOTOGRAPHS FROM THE FIRST DECADE OF THE XX CENTURY



ZAKLADY KÓRNICKIE

Also cal­led the Za­moy­ski Foun­da­tion, they we­re es­ta­blis­hed on 20 Ap­ril 1924 by Wla­dys­law, Count Za­moy­ski from the es­ta­te in Wiel­ko­pol­ska and Za­ko­pa­ne. The aim of this va­lu­a­ble ini­tia­ti­ve was to main­tain the ca­stle and li­bra­ry in Kór­nik, esta­blish a den­dro­lo­gi­cal in­sti­tu­te, re­pa­ya­ble fi­nan­cial sup­port for ta­len­ted young pe­ople and pro­mo­te an e­du­ca­tion a­mong the lo­cal com­mu­ni­ty. The Foun­da­tion was not in­ten­ded to be a cha­ri­ty, but through pro­per ma­na­ge­ment it should ha­ve ge­ne­ra­ted in­co­me de­sig­na­ted for its sta­tu­to­ry pur­po­ses. Short­ly af­ter the be­gin­ning of its ac­ti­vi­ty, the in­sti­tu­tion was sub­ject to a high sta­te tax, which led to fi­nan­cial pro­blems, par­tial­ly e­li­mi­na­ted by the sa­le of Ta­tra fo­rests. They ha­ve ne­ver de­ve­lo­ped their ac­ti­vi­ty on the sca­le that the foun­der would ha­ve wis­hed, main­ly due to their mis­ma­na­ge­ment and nu­me­rous e­xam­ples of em­bez­zle­ment in their ranks. For­mal­ly, the in­sti­tu­tion sur­vi­ved the Se­cond World War and fun­ctio­ned un­til 1953, when it was dis­sol­ved by the com­mu­nists. It was re­ac­ti­va­ted in 2001 as a pu­blic be­ne­fit or­ga­ni­za­tion and re-equip­ped in about 4000 ha of land, this ti­me li­mi­ted on­ly to the Wiel­ko­pol­ska re­gion. The main goals of the Za­moy­ski Foun­da­tion to­day in­clu­de: de­ve­lo­ping mo­dern a­gri­cul­tu­re, pro­mo­ting a­gri­cul­tu­ral e­du­ca­tion, spre­a­ding the idea of or­ga­nic work, sup­por­ting so­cial ini­tia­ti­ves and in­sti­tu­tions of the Kór­nik Li­bra­ry and the In­sti­tu­te of Den­dro­lo­gy.




POSTCARDS WITH A VIEW OF THE KÓRNIK CASTLE, 20. XX CENTURY


uring the Se­cond World War the ca­stle did not suf­fer any di­rect da­ma­ge as a re­sult of mi­li­ta­ry ac­tion, but the lar­ge num­ber of works of art sto­len by the Ger­mans from Poz­nan led to its ce­ilings being o­ver­loa­ded. The con­di­tion of the buil­ding al­so de­te­rio­ra­ted due to the lo­we­ring of the ground­wa­ter le­vel, which cau­sed rot­ting of the wood­en pi­les stuck in the foun­da­tions. At the end of the war, the na­zis, es­ca­ping in a hur­ry, took so­me of the ex­hi­bits from Kór­nik to the Reich, de­stro­yed so­me of them and left the rest in ge­ne­ral di­sor­der: [...] The in­ter­ior of the ca­stle af­ter the Ger­mans es­ca­ped pre­sen­ted a pic­tu­re of an in­cre­di­ble de­struc­tion. Eve­ry­whe­re the­re we­re pi­les of shat­te­red fur­ni­tu­re and mo­nu­ments, the re­mains of bro­ken chests, glass and por­ce­lain, par­chment do­cu­ments col­lap­sing, scat­te­red books, nu­mis­ma­tics and pa­pers, over­thrown e­quip­ment and its parts, bro­ken and de­stro­yed doors, arm­chairs [...]. The first con­ser­va­tion works we­re un­der­ta­ken in 1947, when steel an­chors we­re laid and with the use of con­cre­te pi­les, the foun­da­tions we­re re­in­for­ced. In 1952 the se­cond sta­ge of works was star­ted, du­ring which the ground la­yer was streng­the­ned, which sa­ved the his­to­ric buil­ding. Fi­nal­ly, in 1957-59 the ca­stle in­er­iors we­re re­no­va­ted and a­dap­ted to the needs of the Kór­nik Li­bra­ry.


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THE SOUTHERN ELEVATION OF THE KÓRNIK CASTLE BEFORE ITS RENOVATION IN 2019



he ca­stle in Kór­nik is a top class mo­nu­ment. Be­ing a com­pi­la­tion of va­rious ar­chi­tec­tu­ral pat­terns and sty­les, con­si­de­red one of the most be­au­ti­ful Po­lish e­xam­ples of mo­dern neo-Got­hic ar­chi­tec­tu­re, the buil­ding at­tracts at­ten­tion not on­ly be­cau­se of the high aes­the­tic va­lu­es of its ex­ter­nal form, but al­so be­cau­se of the ma­gni­fi­cent, al­most un­chan­ged nine­teenth-cen­tu­ry in­ter­iors. To­day, they ser­ve as mu­se­ums and are e­quip­ped with such a lar­ge num­ber of his­to­ri­cal me­mo­ra­bil­ia, scul­ptu­res, fur­ni­tu­re, mi­li­ta­ry items, pain­tings, hun­ting trop­hies, tra­vel and et­hno­grap­hic col­lec­tions that it is ne­ces­sa­ry to ma­ke a se­ve­ral hours to get ac­quain­ted with the who­le in de­tail. The ca­stle rooms a­vai­la­ble for tou­rists are lo­ca­ted on two floors e­quip­ped with o­ri­gi­nal floors, so it is obli­ga­to­ry to put on, re­min­ding the ti­mes of com­mu­nism, lar­ge pro­te­cti­ve slip­pers at the en­tran­ce to the cham­bers. The first room on the tour rou­te is lo­ca­ted to the west of the hal­lway the Room of Wla­dys­law Za­moy­ski, whe­re li­ved: Ty­tus Dzia­lyn­ski, his son Jan and Za­moy­ski him­self, the last two of whom died he­re. Af­ter Za­moy­ski's death, a Got­hic wood­en al­tar was pla­ced in the room and hen­ce the in­ter­ior was cal­led a cha­pel un­til the pre-war ti­mes. The on­ly fur­ni­tu­re re­mai­ning from the o­ri­gi­nal e­quip­ment is a ma­ho­ga­ny Em­pir­e desk from the mid­dle of the 19th cen­tu­ry. The last ow­ner of the ca­stle was sup­po­sed to sleep on this desk, which was al­le­ged­ly con­nec­ted with his child­hood pro­mis­e that he would sleep on a hard bed if Po­land re­gai­ned the de­si­red in­de­pen­den­ce du­ring his li­fe­ti­me. Anot­her va­lu­a­ble ex­hi­bit is a wal­nut war­dro­be with in­la­yed fi­gu­res of war­riors, as well as a 18th cen­tu­ry glo­be, 19th cen­tu­ry map stand and col­lec­tion of paint­ings and scul­ptu­res. The par­quet ma­de of birch root, ma­ho­ga­ny and wal­nut, who­se de­co­ra­tion imi­ta­tes the pat­ter­ned car­pet with O­gon­czyk and Je­li­ta fa­mi­ly coats of arms, de­ser­ves se­pa­ra­te at­ten­tion.


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AT THE TOP LEFT, A ROOM OF WLADYSLAW ZAMOYSKI; BELOW THERE IS A STAIRCASE IN THE TOWER
IN THE PHOTOGRAPHS ON THE RIGHT, THE STAIRS LEADING TO THE 1ST FLOOR


he wes­tern part of the lo­wer floor is oc­cu­pied by the Ge­ne­ral's Wife Room, on­ce the a­part­ment of a house­wi­fe, first Ce­le­sty­na Dzia­lyn­ska (+1883), wi­fe of Ti­tus, and then her daug­hter Ja­dwi­ga Za­moy­ska, who li­ved he­re in 1881-86 and 1920-23 and died he­re. On­ly two ex­hi­bits sur­vi­ved from the o­ri­gi­nal e­quip­ment of Ce­le­sty­na's room: an e­bo­ny Dutch ca­bi­net from the 17th cen­tu­ry and a six-win­ged cur­tain with Chi­ne­se de­co­ra­tion. A be­au­ti­ful wal­nut En­glish se­cre­ta­ry, 18th cen­tu­ry chil­dren's fur­ni­tu­re, an ivo­ry ca­bi­net and a Tur­kish oak arm­chair ha­ve been pre­ser­ved from the ti­mes of Ja­dwi­ga. The ot­her fur­ni­tu­res, also o­ri­gi­nal and no less in­te­res­ting, co­mes from ot­her fa­mi­ly pro­per­ty of the Dzia­lyn­skis. The cha­rac­ter of the room is em­pha­si­zed by an ex­hi­bi­tion of fa­mi­ly me­mo­ra­bi­lia, main­ly por­traits and pho­to­graphs, in­clu­ding so­me of the most va­lu­a­ble dra­wings in the Kór­nik col­lec­tion: works by Ar­tur Grot­tger, Jan Nor­blin and Mar­cel­li Bac­cia­rel­li. In ad­dit­ion, the vi­si­tors' at­ten­tion is drawn to the in­la­yed floor ma­de of he­xa­go­nal pa­nels, as well as the stuc­co-de­co­ra­ted cei­ling with ro­set­te and star mo­tifs. In the west­ern wall the­re are bal­co­ny doors le­a­ding to the log­gia, from which ma­ny ye­ars ago the­re was a view of La­ke Kór­nic­kie (to­day co­ve­red with trees), whi­le in the nort­hern wall the­re is an un­co­ve­red 16th cen­tu­ry wall, left af­ter the post-war re­no­va­tion of the ca­stle.


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THE GENERAL'S WIFE ROOM, ON THE LEFT SIDE YOU CAN SEE THE UNCOVERED XVI-CENTURY WALL


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THE LOUNGE; BLACK HALL ON THE RIGHT


he in­ter­ior of the Lou­nge, ac­cor­ding to its fun­ction, is one of the most re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve in the Kór­nik ca­stle, which is em­pha­si­zed by gil­ded stuc­co­work of the cei­ling, de­co­ra­ted oak por­tals, a lar­ge mar­ble fi­re­pla­ce and a be­au­ti­ful par­quet floor. The room is mos­tly fur­nis­hed with au­then­tic de­co­ra­tion from the mid­dle of the 19th cen­tu­ry, ma­de by car­pen­ters em­plo­yed by Dzia­lyn­ski du­ring re­con­struc­tion of the re­si­den­ce. The most in­te­res­ting ob­jects ex­hi­bi­ted he­re in­clu­de two ma­ho­ga­ny so­fas, a ta­ble with a mo­sa­ic com­po­sed of six­teen spe­cies of trees, a his­to­ric French clock, an 18th-cen­tu­ry French harp and the pia­no be­lon­ged to Klau­dy­na Po­toc­ka, on which, ac­cor­ding to tra­di­tion, Fry­de­ryk Cho­pin pla­yed. The li­ving room is ad­joi­ned by a Small Lou­nge - a mo­dest cham­ber o­ri­gi­nal­ly u­sed as a bed­room. Its main de­co­ra­tion is a red mar­ble fi­re­pla­ce with a Ba­ro­que Sa­xon mir­ror hung o­ver it - the­se are the on­ly pie­ces of equip­ment that re­mem­ber ti­mes of Ce­le­sty­na Dzia­lyn­ska. The most in­te­res­ting fur­ni­tu­re he­re is a ca­bi­net li­ned with bron­ze and pearl mass from the 17th cen­tu­ry. The ot­her fur­ni­tu­res are clas­sic­is­tic and da­tes back to the turn of the 18th and 19th cen­tu­ries. As in ot­her rooms, the Small Lou­nge is de­co­ra­ted with a lar­ge col­lec­tion of 16th-19th cen­tu­ry pain­tings, in­clu­ding a Por­trait of the boy by Ga­le­az­zi­no, for ma­ny years mis­ta­ken­ly con­si­de­red to be the pain­ting by Ti­zia­no Ve­cel­li. Go­ing fur­ther east­wards we en­ter the Black Hall, the for­mer ca­stle hal­lway, whe­re pro­ba­bly from the me­die­val ti­mes un­til the 18th cen­tu­ry the­re was a ga­te buil­ding with an en­tran­ce to the ca­stle court­yard. The na­me of the hall co­mes from the pro­vi­sio­nal ce­ment floor pain­ted on black by Dzia­lyn­ski, which in 1961 was re­pla­ced by a mar­ble floor. In the se­cond half of the 19th cen­tu­ry, this room, then cal­led a hal­lway with iron co­lumns, ser­ved as a re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve li­ving room whe­re guests we­re wel­co­med. To­day the­re is a small ex­po­si­tion of pain­tings and fur­nis­hings, the most va­lu­a­ble of which is an Em­pi­re ta­ble co­ve­red with a mo­saic from Pom­peii da­ting back to Christ's ti­me, sho­wing a dog guar­ding the hou­se.




PLAN OF THE GROUND FLOOR: 1. ENTRYWAY, 2. ROOM OF WLADYSLAW ZAMOYSKI, 3. GENERAL'S WIFE ROOM, 4. LOUNGE, 5. SMALL LOUNGE,
6. BLACK HALL, 7. DINING HALL, 8. BOUDOIR, 9. ROOM OF MARIA ZAMOYSKA, 10. HUNTING NOOK


o the east of the Black Hall the­re is a Di­ning Hall, al­so known as the Arms Hall. The main de­co­ra­tion of this room is cei­ling con­tai­ning in 71 bo­xes shields with co­ats of arms of the 15th cen­tu­ry Po­lish knight­hood - on­ce in­cor­rec­tly re­fer­red to as co­ats of arms of knights fight­ing at Grun­wald. One em­pty box was the ob­ject of Ti­tus' jo­kes, who li­ked to re­peat that he would com­ple­ment it with the ap­pro­pria­te co­at of arms of the guest who was ar­ri­ving, if ne­ces­sa­ry. On­ly neo-Ba­ro­que chairs with high back­rests from the turn of the 17th and 18th cen­tu­ries and a Ba­ro­que press for the li­nen ha­ve sur­vi­ved from the o­ri­gi­nal e­quip­ment of the hall. The rest of the fur­ni­tu­res we­re im­por­ted la­ter, al­though they are e­qual­ly old and va­lu­a­ble. On the walls, just li­ke in the Lou­nge, the­re a­re re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve, la­rge por­traits of an­ces­tors ac­com­pa­nied by the Whi­te La­dy, the fa­mous ima­ge of Te­o­fi­la Po­tu­lic­ka. The pas­sa­ge from the Black Hall to the Room of Ma­ria Za­moy­ska leads through a hu­ge o­gi­ve por­tal en­cir­cled with go­thic flo­ral de­co­ra­tion and or­na­men­ted with the arms of the Dzia­lyn­ski fa­mi­ly. The Ma­ria Room was o­ri­gi­nal­ly u­sed as a guest room, and la­ter as a pri­va­te a­part­ment for Iza­be­la Dzia­lyn­ska and Ma­ria Za­moy­ska, the si­ster of Wla­dy­slaw. A cha­rac­te­ris­tic de­co­ra­ti­ve e­le­ment is the a­bun­dant cei­ling stuc­co in the form of a ge­o­met­ric or­ien­tal plait, for­ming a star in the mid­dle. Near the win­dow the­re is an Ara­bic in­scrip­tion with a ba­sic re­li­gion of the Isla­mic faith - it was a tri­bu­te of Dzia­lyn­ski to Tur­key, which as the on­ly one of the then coun­tries did not ac­cept the par­tit­ion of Po­land. Two se­ven­teenth-cen­tu­ry cup­boards de­co­ra­ted with a pearl la­yer, a so­fa and oak arm­chairs up­hol­ste­red in stri­ped folk fa­bric, as well as chairs ma­de of pear wood, pro­ba­bly de­sig­ned by Ce­le­sty­na Dzia­lyn­ska, ha­ve sur­vi­ved from the ori­gi­nal fur­nish­ings of the room. It is al­so worth no­ting the Ro­co­co se­cre­ta­ries, the Dutch ta­ble li­ned with e­bo­ny and ro­se­wood and the toi­let ta­ble u­sed by Ma­ria to sto­re paints and paint­ing tools. The walls are de­co­ra­ted with fa­mi­ly por­traits and works by Za­moy­ska. North of the Ma­ria's Room the­re is an oc­ta­go­nal room co­ve­red with a cry­stal vault, cal­led the Hun­ting Nook. Its cen­tral part is fil­led with a cir­cu­lar so­fa, around which in show­ca­ses and on walls the­re are ex­hi­bits of Wla­dys­law Za­moy­ski's tra­vels, in­clu­ding skull masks, a palm hat - a gift from the si­ster of the King of Ha­wai­ian Is­lands, Prin­cess Li­li’­uo­ka­la­ni, and the ol­dest ex­hi­bit in the mu­se­um - a sto­ne ri­tual fi­gu­re from Pa­pua New Gui­nea, which is o­ver 3000 years old.


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AT THE TOP LEFT, THE ROOM OF MARIA ZAMOYSKA; BELOW THERE IS THE HUNTING NOOK
DINING HALL IN THE PHOTOGRAPHS ON THE RIGHT


he lar­gest and un­doub­te­dly most fa­mous cham­ber in the Kór­nik ca­stle is the Moor­ish Hall, sha­ped du­ring its last re­con­struc­tion by com­bi­ning two cham­bers and ad­ding a room in a quad­ri­la­te­ral to­wer. Ori­gi­nal­ly it was sup­po­sed to hou­se a li­bra­ry, but af­ter the Ty­tus' death, by de­ci­sion of Jan Kan­ty Dzia­lyn­ski, a mu­se­um room was ar­ran­ged he­re, whe­re old we­a­pons, me­mo­ra­bi­lia of an­ces­tors, friends and fa­mous count­ry­men we­re col­lec­ted, ex­po­sed on book­ca­ses. The cham­ber con­sists of two smal­ler rooms and an al­co­ve, se­pa­ra­ted by por­ti­coes, built of three ar­ca­des sup­por­ted by thin co­lumns. Each of its parts was ma­de in a dif­fe­rent sty­le - you can find he­re both re­fe­ren­ces to me­die­val Arab ar­chi­tec­tu­re and forms in­spi­red by En­glish Go­thic art. The hall ex­hi­bits ma­ny va­lu­ab­le ob­jects, in­clu­ding o­ri­gi­nal ar­mour of the Po­lish ri­ders with ve­ry ra­re full Hus­sar ar­mour with wings, Po­lish and east­ern white arms, hun­ting cros­sbows, mar­shal's sticks, de­co­ra­ti­ve ta­ble­wa­re, 18th cen­tu­ry Meis­sen por­ce­lain col­lec­tions. In the cen­tral part the­re are show­ca­ses with ex­hi­bits in­he­ri­ted by the Dzia­lyn­skis from their an­ces­tors: cups, gold­smiths' wa­res and the ol­dest mo­nu­ment pre­sen­ted he­re - a me­dal­lion with the ima­ge of St. Pe­ter, pre­su­ma­bly co­ming from the 11th cen­tu­ry chain of Be­ne­dic­ti­ne ab­bots from Kru­szwi­ca. The east­ern part of the Moor­ish Hall is de­di­ca­ted to sa­cred art, whe­re you can ad­mi­re the French dip­tych ma­de of ivo­ry with the sce­ne of the Co­ro­na­tion of the Three Kings, 15th cen­tu­ry re­li­gious books, Ro­ma­nes­que wa­ter ves­sels and old sto­ne blocks with the fa­ces of pa­gan de­mons. The last room on the tour of the ca­stle is the Guest Room, which du­ring Ty­tus Dzia­lyn­ski's li­fe­time ser­ved as a fur­ni­tu­re and paint­ing wa­re­hou­se and was not de­ve­lo­ped un­til the 1860s, when a li­ving room was ar­ran­ged in it.


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IN THE MOORISH HALL, BELOW ON THE LEFT YOU CAN SEE THE HALLWAY ON THE FIRST FLOOR


here is al­so a li­bra­ry in the ca­stle, esta­blis­hed in 1817 by Ty­tus Dzia­lyn­ski in his ho­me­town in Ko­na­rze­wo and mo­ved to Kór­nik in 1826. The book col­lec­tion be­lon­ging to the Po­lish Aca­de­my of Scien­ces com­pri­ses a­bout 350 thou­sand vo­lu­mes, in­clu­ding o­ver 40 thou­sand old prints, among them ma­nu­scripts of the third part of Dzia­dy, bal­lads Pan Twar­dow­ski and frag­ments of Be­niow­ski by Ju­liusz Slo­wa­cki. Uni­que are the six­teenth-cen­tu­ry e­di­tions of po­et­ry by Jan Ko­cha­now­ski, the ol­dest mo­nu­ment he­re is a French ma­nu­script da­ting from the turn of the ninth and tenth cen­tu­ries.


Polska Akademia Nauk Bilbioteka Kórnicka
ul. Zamkowa 5, 62-035 Kórnik-Zamek
tel.: +48 61 817 00 81 - secretariat
+48 531 990 142 - ticket reservation
e-mail: sekretariat.zamek(at)bk.pan.pl

Opening hours
Tickets





CASTLE IN KÓRNIK, PLAN OF THE 1ST FLOOR: 1. HALL, 2. MOORISH HALL, 3. TREASURY, 4. GUEST ROOM



ór­nik is lo­ca­ted 20 km south­east of Poz­nan, at the S11 Poz­nan-Ka­to­wi­ce rou­te. Tho­se who tra­vel by train should be pre­pa­red for a long walk, be­cau­se the rail­way sta­tion is about 5 km a­way from the town. There are al­so 501 and 560 bus li­nes to Kór­nik from Poz­nan (de­par­tu­re from Ron­do Ra­ta­je). The ca­stle is lo­ca­ted near the Mar­ket Squa­re, about 300 me­ters south of the town hall. The most con­ve­nient way to park your car is at the Mar­ket Squa­re, in a pri­va­te car park at Zam­ko­wa Street (you ha­ve to pass the ca­stle when dri­ving from the town) or di­rec­tly at the main en­tran­ce to the mu­se­um. All options are paid, the last one costs the most. (map of cas­tles in Wiel­ko­pol­ska)




1. A. Chyczewska: Zamek Kórnicki, 1973
2. B. Dolczewska, M. Kosman: Zamek w Kórniku
3. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kolodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
4. R. Prinke: Cnota dziwacka - wlasciciele Kórnika w kregu poznanskich wolnomularzy, PAN BK 2017
5. K. Stepinska: Palace i zamki w Polsce dawniej i dzis, KAW 1977
6. B. Wernichowska, M. Kozlowski: Duchy polskie, PTTK Kraj 1985


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VIEW OF THE KÓRNIK CASTLE FROM THE ARBORETUM SIDE


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CASTLE FROM THE NORTH-WESTERN SIDE


Castles nearby:
Poznan - the royal castle 13th century, rebuilt, 21 km
Jezioro Góreckie - ruins of a neo-Gothic 'castle', 19th century, 22 km



It is worth seeing also:


On the ot­her si­de of Zam­ko­wa Street, the­re is a mo­dest but ve­ry in­te­res­ting ex­hi­bi­tion of ni­ne­teenth-cen­tu­ry hor­se-drawn ve­hi­cles pur­cha­sed by Jan Dzia­lyn­ski du­ring his stay in Pa­ris in 1856. The pur­cha­se tran­sac­tion in­clu­ded three car­ria­ges, dif­fe­ring in terms of pur­po­se, di­men­sions and equip­ment and ma­de by an En­glish com­pa­ny Bar­ker & Co. The most ex­pen­si­ve of the three was Dro­me­za, a sleep­ing coach a­dap­ted for long ex­pe­dit­ions. The ele­gant Ber­li­ne de Ga­la, equip­ped with a pull-out stair­ca­se, was u­sed for re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve but not too dis­tant jour­neys, whi­le short trips a­round the area we­re ma­de u­sing the o­pen car­ria­ge Ca­le­che. The col­lec­tion of three well-ma­de ve­hic­les (Bar­ker & Co. com­pa­ny at the turn of the 19th and 20th cen­tu­ries star­ted co­o­pe­ra­tion with Rolls-Roy­ce) is com­ple­men­ted by a count­ry car­ria­ge ow­ned by Kór­nik Cul­tu­ral So­cie­ty.


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The Kór­nik Ar­bo­re­tum, lo­ca­ted to the south of the ca­stle, was foun­ded by Ty­tus Dzia­lyn­ski and his son Jan, who in the years 1830-80 trans­for­med Ba­ro­que French ge­o­me­tri­cal gar­dens in­to a ro­man­tic En­glish-sty­le land­sca­pe park with na­tu­ral la­yout of ave­nu­es and trees. About 3,500 spe­cies of trees and shrubs grow in the 30 he­cta­re bo­ta­ni­cal a­rea, in­clu­ding ma­ny hun­dreds of years old spe­ci­mens na­tu­ral­ly found in tem­pe­ra­te zo­nes of the north­ern he­mi­sphe­re, espe­cial­ly li­me, beech and oak trees. You can al­so find he­re a rich col­lec­tion of bir­ches, firs, cy­pres­ses, nut trees, li­lacs and rho­do­den­drons, as well as ma­gno­lias with the ol­dest spe­ci­men of 160-year-old tree ma­gno­lia, which are the pri­de of the Kór­nik ga­rden. The Ar­bo­re­tum be­longs to the In­sti­tu­te of Den­dro­lo­gy of the Po­lish Aca­de­my of Scien­ces and is open to vi­si­tors all year.


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In a small vil­la­ge of Ro­ga­lin, 12 ki­lo­me­ters west of Kór­nik, a be­au­ti­ful pa­la­ce and park com­plex, the seat of the Ra­czyn­ski fa­mi­ly. Its main ele­ment is the la­te-Ba­ro­que pa­la­ce, erec­ted in the years 1770-76 on the ini­tia­ti­ve of Ka­zi­mierz Ra­czyn­ski. It con­sists of a mo­nu­men­tal main buil­ding and two si­de an­ne­xes con­nec­ted with it by quar­ter-cir­cle wings, ac­com­pa­nied by an im­pres­si­ve chest­nut al­ley in the front part and a French gar­den lo­ca­ted in the west. The pa­la­ce buil­ding now hou­ses a mu­se­um (a se­ction of the Na­tio­nal Mu­se­um in Poz­nan) with an im­pres­si­ve col­lec­tion of paint­ings by such ar­tists as Ja­cek Mal­czew­ski, Leon Wy­czol­kow­ski, Sta­nis­law Wy­spian­ski and Jan Ma­tej­ko. Se­ve­ral hun­dred me­ters east of the pa­la­ce, on the road to Kór­nik, stands a clas­si­cis­tic St. Mar­ce­li­na church built by Ed­ward Ra­czyn­ski, in­spi­red by a Ro­man tem­ple in Ni­mes from the first cen­tu­ry BC. It has two sto­reys, the up­per part of which ser­ves as a cha­pel, and the lo­wer one hou­ses a mau­so­leum of the Ra­czyn­ski fa­mi­ly, whe­re Ber­nard Ed­ward Ra­czyn­ski, the for­mer pre­si­dent of the Re­pu­blic of Po­land in exi­le, res­ted. The at­trac­tion is com­ple­men­ted by lo­ca­ted on the op­po­si­te si­de of the pa­la­ce and park com­plex, the big­gest in Eu­ro­pe, con­cen­tra­tion of mo­nu­men­tal oaks, con­sis­ting of about 1500 trees. The most fa­mous are Lech, Czech and Rus, who­se age is es­ti­ma­ted at 700-800 ye­ars.


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text: 2015, 2019
photographs: 2008, 2013, 2017, 2018, 2019
© by Jacek Bednarek