*** CASTLE IN 名INY ***

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名INY

the ruin of a knight's castle

CASTLE RUIN IN 名INY

HISTORY OF THE CASTLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE

SIGHTSEEING


I

n the 11th cen­tu­ry, a wooden for­ti­fied town was built here to guard the trade route from Si­le­sia to Bo­he­mia. Pos­si­bly it re­placed an old­er, ear­ly me­dieval ham­let, which, ac­cord­ing to some re­searchers, was sup­posed to be lo­cat­ed in the east­ern part of cas­tle hill un­til it was de­stroyed by Czech troops. Ex­is­tence of the cas­tle in the times of Pol­ish prince Boles豉w Krzy­wousty is con­firmed by re­la­tion of Prague chron­i­cler Kos­mas (d. 1125), ac­cord­ing to which Czech ruler Muti­na, pre­tend­ing to go hunt­ing wild boars, met se­cret­ly in 1108 with his un­cle Niemoj at the cas­tle Zvi­ni In Polo­nia to dis­cuss plans for a con­spir­a­cy to over­throw Prince Sve­topoluk. It is the old­est sur­viv­ing his­tor­i­cal text men­tion­ing the name of the me­dieval stronghold in 安iny.



NORTHERN ELEVATION OF CASTLE, 2020

winy was men­tioned again in pa­pal bull, signed by Hadri­an IV (d. 1159), which de­scribes the cas­tle as a castel­lany being un­der the au­thor­i­ty of Sile­sian duke Bo­le­s豉w Ro­gat­ka (d. 1278) or his son, the Ja­wor duke Hen­ryk Brzu­cha­ty (d. 1296). Be­tween 1230 and 1248, Tad­er castel­lanus de Swina (1230), comes Jaxa castel­lanus de Swina (1242) and Pet­ri­co castel­lanus de Zui­ni (1248) were men­tioned. How­ev­er, the de­tailed his­to­ry of the cas­tle from this pe­ri­od is un­known. Ac­cord­ing to one of the hy­pothe­ses, when a new ad­min­is­tra­tive cen­tre was formed in near­by Bolk闚, the cas­tle lost stra­te­gic im­por­tance and be­came pri­vate. Based on an­oth­er as­sump­tion, in pa­gan times 安iny was the seat of Slav­ic rulers of the 安i雟­ka G這­wa (Pig's head) fam­i­ly. When the Pol­ish prince Mieszko con­quered Sile­sia (b. 992), they be­came vas­sals of the Pi­ast dy­na­sty, and from then on performed the func­tion of castel­lans.



COAT OF ARMS OF THE VON SCHWEINICHEN FAMILY


HISTORICAL NAMES OF 名INY

Zvini (in Polonia) (1108), Zpi­ni (1155),
Su­ini (1245), Swin (1272),
Swi­ni­no (1311), Swyn (1313),
Swei­na (1325), Swey­ne (1407),
Schwein­hau­sen (1668), Schwein­haus (1726),
Schwein­haus­burg (1827), 安i­nio­gr鏚 (1945)


名INY CASTLE SEEN FROM THE TOWER OF BOLK紟 CASTLE

I

t is like­ly that even be­fore 1272 the prince's strong­hold passed in­to the hands of knight domi­nus Jan de Swin. Lat­er doc­um­ents men­tion Pe­ter, Kon­rad and Gun­ze­lin de Swy­ne (d. 1327/28), the next own­ers of the cast­le and more than twen­ty vil­lages. In 1323 安i­ny was ad­min­is­tered by Hen­ri­cus de Swyn (d. c. 1355), a court­ier of Hen­ryk of Ja­wor and Bol­ko of Zi­bi­ce, a par­tic­i­pant of the Cru­sade to Rhodes. Pre­sum­ably it was that knight who in the first half of the 14th cen­tu­ry built a res­i­den­tial stone tow­er and sur­round­ed it with a wall. Since then, this mas­sive Goth­ic build­ing, re­peat­ed­ly ex­pand­ed, mod­ern­ized and trans­formed ac­cord­ing to cur­rent trends and needs, served as the main seat of the Sile­sian line of fam­i­ly un­til 1769, beeing the sym­bol of its cen­turies-long reign on this land.



THE OLDEST KNOWN IMAGE OF 名INY CASTLE, 1655

T

he son of Hen­ricus, Nick­el (d. 1370) had three male de­scen­dants: Gun­czil (d. 1407/09), Ja­mo vom Sweyn (d. c. 1400) and Hein­rich (d. 1441), called Ody­niec, a pro­to­plast of the Jä­gen­dorf fam­i­ly line, whose rep­re­sen­ta­tives still live in Ger­many, Ita­ly and even in Bra­zil. The founder of younger Schwei­ni­chen fam­i­ly line was Gun­czil vom Swey­ne (d. be­fore 1443), who took o­ver the land from his un­cle, al­so Gun­czil (son of Nick­el, d. 1407/09). He was fol­lowed by Gun­czil Swei­ni­chen von Swein (d. 1503 at the age of 83 or 93), who killed his ri­val Hans von Tschirn (d. ca. 1455) from near­by P這­ni­na. This rob­ber-knight ex­tend­ed the cas­tle by erec­ting a west­ern res­i­den­tial build­ing and new for­ti­fi­ca­tions.



F. B. WERNER, "TOPOGRAPHIA SEU COMPENDIUM SILESIAE 1744-68"


The legend says, that the sur­name 安in­ka comes from a wild boar, for­mer­ly called a pig. The first time it was to be used by a cer­tain Bi­w鎩, who in 721 gave the queen Libusza a hand-hunt­ed wild boar. He was re­ward­ed for this by receiving the wild boar coat of arms, the lands and princess Kazia as his bride.

The 安in­ka fam­i­ly took o­ver the name from 安i­ny, a castel­lan's cas­tle, which in the mid­dle of 13th cen­tu­ry lost its im­por­tance for the new ad­min­is­tra­tive and po­lit­i­cal cen­ter in Bol­k闚. The fam­i­ly was known not on­ly in Sile­sia, but al­so in Poland, Bo­he­mia and Ger­ma­ny - i.a. from its Great Poland line the arch­bish­op of Gnie­zno Ja­kub 安in­ka (d. 1314) came. Ac­cord­ing to Kon­stan­tin von Schwei­ni­chen, in the ear­ly Mid­dle Ages, there were many fam­i­lies with the com­mon name of 安i­ska G這­wa (Pig's head). By de­cree of one of the Czech kings, they were lat­er giv­en sep­a­rate coats of arms with sim­i­lar mo­tifs. The 安in­ka from Sile­sia, as the main and the old­est fam­i­ly line, re­ceived a coat of arms de­pict­ing the wild boar in most mag­nif­i­cent form. In the four­teenth cen­tu­ry, with the fall of Pol­ish cus­toms at ducal court, the Slav­ic-sound­ing sur­name be­gan to be grad­u­al­ly ger­man­ized, and the terms Swyn, Zui­ni and Swini­no were trans­formed in­to Swin and Swein. By the end of the fif­teenth cen­tu­ry the typical German name Schwei­ni­chen was already in use.


名INY IN DRAWINGS BY F. B. WERNER, "TOPOGRAPHIA SEU COMPENDIUM SILESIAE 1744-68"
IN THE FOREGROUND YOU CAN SEE THE CASTLE CHURCH OF ST. NICHOLAS, IN THE BACKGROUND - THE CASTLE IN BOLK紟

B

urgmann von Schweinichen (d. 1566) was born in 1456 and reached the in­cred­i­ble age of 110, dy­ing of an or­di­nary cold, not be­cause of old age. His son Jo­hann Sigis­mund the El­der (d. 1606) ap­par­ent­ly in­her­it­ed his fa­ther's good genes, be­cause he al­so en­joyed a long life. How­ev­er, he could not taste all his charms with­out lim­i­ta­tions, be­cause his wife Bar­ba­ra von Roth­kirch (d. 1586), brought up in a strict protes­tant rule, lim­it­ed the amount of wine he con­sumed to one cup a day, pro­vid­ed that he had pre­vi­ous­ly was able to sum­ma­rize the whole page of Holy Bible. Bar­ba­ra and Jo­hann had an on­ly son, Adam, as well as a step-daugh­ter, Ur­su­la von Zei­dlitz (d. 1588), who passed away at the age of 17 from in­gest­ing a nee­dle. It was prob­ab­ly a sui­cide.



THE CASTLE BRIDGE

A

f­ter Bar­bara's death, Jo­hann en­tered rep­re­hen­si­ble - from the point of view of modern times - re­la­tion­ship with 15-year-old Katha­ri­na von Som­mer­feldt und Fal­ken­hain (d. 1630). De­spite the fact that at the time of his wed­ding the "groom" was al­ready 81 years old, he was able to spend the next 15 years with his young wife, keep­ing two sons. One of them, Jo­hann Sigis­mund the Younger (d. 1664), in the first half of 17th cen­tu­ry made a great re­con­struc­tion of the cas­tle in Re­nais­sance style, giv­ing it a form sim­i­lar to the Ital­ian res­i­dences from that pe­ri­od. The von Schwei­ni­chen fam­i­ly seat was then di­vid­ed in­to an up­per cas­tle with a Goth­ic tow­er and a low­er cas­tle with a new rep­re­sen­ta­tive palace and bas­tion-type for­ti­fi­ca­tions. Aes­thet­ic am­bi­tions of the own­er have been re­flect­ed in ren­o­vat­ed in­te­ri­ors and their paint­ing dec­o­ra­tions, new fa­cades, as well as Re­nais­sance roofs, por­tals and win­dow frames. Jo­hann Sigis­mund was a trav­el­er and theosophist. Thanks to his wide-rang­ing con­tacts with mys­tics, al­chemists and Rosi­cru­cians, he found­ed a mys­tic-theo­soph­i­cal li­brary. When died, it was writ­ten on his tomb­stone: At the best male age, he moved away from the tem­po­ral world and spent most of his life alone re­search­ing the mys­ter­ies of God and na­ture, while at the same time he beau­ti­fied and ex­pand­ed his cas­tle at great cost.



THE GRAPHICS FROM THE 2. HALF OF THE 18TH CENTURY

J

ohann Sigis­mund the Younger nev­er mar­ried and did not have a le­git­i­mate heir, so af­ter his death the cas­tle passed in­to hands of his nephew, Ernst von Schwei­ni­chen (d. 1695), and then his son, Prus­sian Lieu­tenant George Ernst (d. 1702). When George Ernst died, the es­tate was tak­en o­ver joint­ly by wid­ow Erd­muthe Sophia (d. 1729) and his el­dest broth­er Hans Ernst (d. 1704). Next, the cas­tle was hand­ed o­ver to Sieg­mund Sey­fried von Zed­litz, who in 1713 sold it to Georg Ernst's son-in-law Se­bas­tian Hein­rich von Schwei­nitz (d. 1721) for 24,000 thalers. When Se­bas­tian Hein­rich died, his on­ly son Ernst Fer­di­nand sold the cas­tle to Hans Friedrich von Schwei­nitz from Ciec­ha­no­wi­ce (d. 1769).



VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE EAST, "TYGODNIK ILUSTROWANY" 1881

T

he reign of Hans Friedrich in 安iny was marked by the Sev­en Years' War, dur­ing which in 1761 the stronghold was in­vad­ed and plun­dered by Rus­sian troops, that de­stroy­ed and rob­bed its fur­nish­ings and dec­o­ra­tion. In 1769, the es­tate was pur­chased in an auc­tion by Prus­sian Min­is­ter Jo­hann Hein­rich, Count von Chursch­wandt of Sto­lec. How­ev­er, the new own­er did not man­age to take any ac­tion to save the al­ready aban­doned res­i­dence, as he un­ex­pect­ed­ly died less than two years af­ter trans­ac­tion. The wid­ow, Ma­rie There­se de do­mo Count­ess von Nimptsch (d. 1806), gave the cas­tle to her sec­ond hus­band, Lud­wig, Count von Schlab­ren­dorf (d. 1803), and then it was hand­ed o­ver to their el­dest daugh­ter Ma­rie The­re­sie von Schlab­ren­dorf (d. 1862). Since then, un­til World War II, 安i­ny were in­her­it­ed in a straight line by de­scen­dants of Ma­rie The­re­sie and her hus­band, Count Hans Ernest Ho­yos von Sprin­zen­stein (d. 1849).



STEEL ENGRAVING BY HUBNER ACCORDING TO THEODOR BLATTERBAUER'S DRAWING, 1885

T

he then own­ers of 安iny resid­ed in Vi­en­na and they didn't pay too much at­ten­tion to the cas­tle. The build­ing, like oth­er von Ho­yos' res­i­dences in Ja­stro­wiec and Sta­re Ro­cho­wi­ce, was leased and used as a grain and straw ware­house. Un­der the ten­ant's ad­min­is­tra­tion, the cas­tle was be­ing dev­as­tat­ed quick­ly, but the re­al dam­age was caused by hur­ri­canes that hit the vil­lage in 1840 and 1868, break­ing the roof of the tow­er and its ceil­ings. De­struc­tion was com­ple­ment­ed by fire of 1875, which rav­aged the cas­tle's in­te­ri­ors, and a mas­sive thun­der­storm which re­sult­ed in the col­lapse of tow­er stair­case. De­spite the fact that the cas­tle be­longed to Ru­dolph von Ho­yos (d. 1896), a phi­lan­thropist and a great lover of an­tiq­ui­ties, he rarely vis­it­ed Sile­sia and didn't pay much at­ten­tion to it. When in 1875 the counts Ho­yos von Sprin­zen­stein moved to Sile­sia, it was too late to save the cas­tle. Ap­par­ent­ly, no res­cue op­er­a­tions were even planned, since as ear­ly as in the 1880s the then own­er Sta­nis­laus Count von Ho­yos (d. 1918) al­lowed to use the stone from ru­ins to build a guest­house, and he rent­ed the cas­tle cel­lars ...for cul­ti­va­tion of mush­rooms.



ONE OF THE OLDEST PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CASTLE, TAKEN AROUND 1870
CURRENTLY THIS SPECTACULAR VIEW IS OBSTRUCTED BY TALL TREES


RUIN OF A BAROQUE PALACE, 1903

A

t the turn of the 19th and 20th cen­tu­ry the own­ers fi­nal­ly de­cid­ed to save the ru­ins, as a re­sult of which the tow­er was giv­en a new roof, which, how­ev­er, was de­scribed as not very nice. In 1905, by de­ci­sion of Sta­nis­laus von Hoyos, the cas­tle was put un­der care of Hei­mat­ve­re­in Bol­ken­hain or­ga­ni­za­tion, and in the 1920s a ren­o­va­tion be­gan - the cas­tle walls were strength­ened, the vaults were se­cured, as well as the roof of the tow­er was changed. The cas­tle was opened to tour­ists: in the 1930s, Au­gust Föst, a hired key­man, made the ru­in avail­able for a small fee of 20 phenigs. The 安i­ny es­tate no longer ex­ist­ed at that time, be­cause due to the great cri­sis, Count Rud­olph Alois von Ho­yos Sprin­zen­stein (d. 1945) was forced to sell the manor, leav­ing 100 hec­tares of for­est and a 14-hectare par­cel with a fort­ress stand­ing on it.




RUIN ON COLOURED POSTCARDS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

A

few years lat­er, when NSDAP took o­ver the gov­ern­ment in Ger­many, the lo­cal au­thor­i­ties sug­gest­ed to re­build the cas­tle and adapt it to the needs of the na­tion­al so­cial­ist youth wel­fare in­sti­tu­tion. There­fore, pres­sure was put on its own­er to sell the ru­in. Von Ho­yos was op­posed to the Nazis, but per­haps to save his wife, who had been im­pris­oned in Gestapo's jail in Wro­c豉w, he fi­nal­ly de­cid­ed to sell the cas­tle to dis­trict au­thor­i­ties, which was done on 25 Septem­ber 1941. Con­trary to ini­tial plans, how­ev­er, the Ger­mans did not re­build the cas­tle, but handed it o­ver to the army, which in 1942 or­ga­nized here a ware­house for Luft­waf­fe air­craft parts. Af­ter the war, the build­ing was aban­doned, but thanks to its clas­si­fi­ca­tion by new au­thor­i­ties as one of the so-called Piast cas­tles, ur­gent re­pairs were made in the 1950s and 1960s, in­clud­ing re­place­ment of ceil­ing and roof cov­er­ing. In 1991, Alek­san­der von Frey­er bought the ru­in from the state, with in­ten­tion of in­stalling in it a cab­i­net of wax fig­ures. How­ev­er, he failed to re­al­ize this idea and in 2008 he sold the cas­tle to ho­tel op­er­a­tor. Am­bi­tious plans of new own­er fo­cused on re­build­ing the old knight's seat and open­ing a ho­tel with a restau­rant in it al­so did not go be­yond the pro­ject phase. Con­se­quent­ly, the cas­tle was again put up for sale.



名INY ON THE REVERSE OF THE SUBSTITUTE MONEY WITH THE FACE VALUE OF 1.5 DEUTSCHE MARK


Since the end of World War II, sto­ries and leg­ends are go­ing around, re­gard­ing pe­ri­od when the Ger­mans were liq­ui­dat­ing the ware­house of air­plane parts. The wit­ness­es re­port­ed­ly claimed that the Nazis had brought sev­er­al hun­dred chests to the cas­tle be­fore es­cap­ing from Si­le­sia, and then placed them in deep drifts, whose cor­ri­dors were lat­er blown up. One of the more fan­tas­tic ver­sions of this sto­ry sug­gests a con­nec­tion with the Am­ber Cham­ber, an­oth­er fol­lows the trail of lost gold from Czech Prague, and an­oth­er per­ceives this place as a hid­den ware­house for goods stolen from Cra­cow by gauleit­er Hans Frank. Maybe all these hy­pothe­ses are the ef­fects of a deeply root­ed mythol­o­gy of the Su­de­tes as an area free of Al­lied air raids, thus very at­trac­tive for Ger­mans in many ways. The fact is, how­ev­er, that just af­ter the war 安i­ny was care­ful­ly guard­ed by Rus­sians, who on the cas­tle hill had to or­ga­nize some ac­tiv­i­ties for par­tic­i­pants of the Ha­ga­na (a Jew­ish mil­i­tary or­ga­ni­za­tion oper­at­ing in Pa­les­tine) train­ing camp lo­cat­ed in near­by Bol­k闚.



CASTLE RUIN IN THE 1920S AND 1930S


HISTORY OF THE CASTLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE

SIGHTSEEING


T

he me­dieval cas­tle was erect­ed in the high­est part of the rocky promon­to­ry, prob­a­bly on the site of the for­mer castel­lan's seat or next to it. The old­est part of it is a 14th cen­tu­ry stone don­jon, built on a rect­an­gu­lar plan with sides of 12x18 me­ters. The tow­er has four storeys, is cel­lared and cov­ered with a gable shin­gle roof, al­though orig­i­nal­ly it was prob­a­bly topped with blanks and cov­ered with a high roof. The main en­trance was lo­cat­ed on the sec­ond floor, and was dec­o­rat­ed with a Goth­ic por­tal. A lad­der led to it, based on a plat­form, frag­ments of which have sur­vived to the pre­sent day. The first floor of the tow­er was oc­cu­pied by a one-space knight's hall, cov­ered with a wood­en ceil­ing, and equip­ped with a rich stuc­co dec­o­ra­tion, re­mains of which can still be seen near the win­dows. Res­i­den­tial in­te­ri­ors on the oth­er storeys were di­vid­ed by wood­en par­ti­tion walls and il­lu­mi­nat­ed by arched win­dows. In the ini­tial phase of cas­tle's op­er­a­tion, com­mu­ni­ca­tion be­tween dif­fer­ent floors was en­sured by wood­en stairs. San­i­tary needs were re­al­ized with the use of la­trine bays sus­pend­ed on the sec­ond and third storey, on the north side of the tow­er. The Goth­ic build­ing was sur­round­ed by an oval-shaped de­fen­sive wall.



PLAN OF THE CASTLE IN THE 1ST HALF OF 14TH CENTURY

GOTHIC TOWER WITH THE STAIRCASE (ADDED IN THE 17TH CENTURY)

T

he first major castle expansion took place in the mid-15th cen­tu­ry, when Gun­czil Swein­ichen von Swein was the own­er of 安i­ny. At that ti­me, the to­wer was sup­ple­men­ted with a west­ern, doub­le-ga­ble hou­se and a south­ern ga­te with port­cul­lis, the re­mains of which we­re pre­ser­ved to this day. A bay win­dow grew abo­ve it, al­though this ele­ment may be a re­sult of the la­ter, 17th cen­tu­ry mo­der­ni­za­tion of the cast­le. Ac­cord­ing to un­con­firm­ed in­for­ma­tion, it was sup­po­sed to be de­co­ra­ted with a po­em (free transl.):

The King and Emperor eat roasted pigs
Smacking their lips
Soldier, listen to this lesson intently
And treat our castle gently!



SOUTHERN ELEVATION OF THE CASTLE RUINS, SKETCH FROM 1954



THE RUIN OF XVTH CENTURY WESTERN HOUSE

T

he biggest trans­for­ma­tions of von Schwei­ni­chen's head­quar­ters took place in the first half of 17th cen­tu­ry dur­ing the times of Jo­hann Sigis­mund the Younger. The ex­ist­ing lay­out was then ex­tend­ed by a rep­re­sen­ta­tive palace and new for­ti­fi­ca­tions. The three-storey palace was flanked in its north­ern part by two cylin­dri­cal tow­ers, which no longer had on­ly a mil­i­tary func­tion, but were al­so a dec­o­ra­tive el­e­ment demon­strat­ing the wealth of the own­ers. On the ground floor it was cut by a wide hall­way cov­ered with rich stuc­co, from where one could di­rect­ly get to cel­lars, sta­bles and the so-called squires' hall (serv­ing as the hostler's quar­ters). Here was al­so the en­trance to the dou­ble in­ter­nal stair­case, which was the old­est ar­chi­tec­tural con­cept of its kind in Sile­sia. The ac­cess to the hall­way led through a gate and a nar­row pedes­tri­an wick­et, dec­o­rat­ed with a mag­nif­i­cent por­tal in the style of a tri­umphal arch with the coat of arms of von Schwei­ni­chen fam­i­ly.




NORTHERN ELEVATION OF THE XVII-CENTURY LOWER CASTLE (PALACE), RECONSTRUCTION FROM 1887

A FRAGMENT OF THE PALACE FAÇADE, PRESENT CONDITION

A

ll el­e­va­tions of the palace were or­na­ment­ed with sgraf­fi­to dec­o­ra­tions di­vid­ing fa­cades in­to large rect­an­gu­lar fields with win­dows. The palace, some­times called the low­er cas­tle, as well as the tow­er and 15th cen­tu­ry west­ern house were sur­round­ed by mod­ern, trape­zoidal for­ti­fi­ca­tions, con­sist­ing of a pe­riph­er­al wall flanked from the south by two open roundels, and from the north by two palace tow­ers. Dur­ing the Thir­ty Years' War, a small bas­tion was erect­ed in the mid­dle of west­ern cur­tain. At that time Jo­hann Sigis­mund the Younger re­built the Gothic tow­er and erec­ted an ad­join­ing com­fort­able stair­case.




PLAN OF THE CASTLE: 1. GOTHIC TOWER, 2. XV- CENTURY WESTERN HOUSE, 3. STAIRCASE,
4. LOWER CASTLE (PALACE), 5. ENTRANCE HALL, 6. NORTHERN TOWERS, 7. SOUTHERN ROUNDELS, 8. BASTION, 9. MOAT


HISTORY OF THE CASTLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE

SIGHTSEEING


winy Cas­tle is one of the old­est Piast for­ti­fied strongholds in Si­le­sia. It has sur­vived to the pre­sent day as a pic­turesque ru­in, whose en­tire beau­ty and for­mer majesty can on­ly be found af­ter en­ter­ing its court­yard, be­cause from the out­side, es­pe­cial­ly from the south, the fort­ress is tight­ly hid­den be­hind a trees. The cas­tle is dom­i­nat­ed by a Goth­ic res­i­den­tial tow­er with rem­nants of sgraf­fi­to dec­o­ra­tions and a roof­less west­ern house, in fact to­day on­ly its ex­ter­nal walls. It is worth not­ing the west­ern fa­cade of don­jon, where an in­cred­i­bly plas­tic and very old ivy tree grows, which is o­ver 250 years old. Ac­cord­ing to ver­bal mes­sage from the key-man and guardian of the cas­tle, Au­gust Föst (born 1850), ivy was al­ready old and large in his child­hood.



VIEW FROM THE EAST TO THE RUIN OF A GOTHIC HOUSE
IN THE LEFT PART OF THE PICTURE WE CAN SEE THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE TOWER WITH OLD IVY


IN THE GOTHIC TOWER

T

he low­er cas­tle is oc­cu­pied by the ru­ins of an ear­ly Baroque palace with pre­served win­dow stone­ma­son­ry and a dec­o­ra­tive por­tal. In the east­ern tow­er you can see un­usu­al paint­ings de­pict­ing 17th cen­tu­ry no­bil­i­ty, made by hand of an anony­mous Ger­man sol­dier in the 1940s, which un­for­tu­nate­ly are dis­ap­pear­ing at very fast rate [pho­to 2005], [pho­to 2020].



RUIN OF A BAROQUE PALACE (LOWER CASTLE)

GATE PASSAGE AT THE LOWER CASTLE



The ruins are privately owned - there are plans to re­build the cas­tle into a hotel. So far (2021) it can still be visi­ted. Open­ing hours de­pend on sea­son (in sum­mer 12-18). When the gate is closed, call the num­ber indi­cated at the en­trance. In 2021 ad­mis­sion to the cas­tle costs 5 PLN.


The castle tour can be easily completed in less than half an hour.


You can visit ru­ins with your dog, pro­vi­ded it is on a le­ash. It is, of cour­se, the own­er's du­ty to cle­an up after his dog.


The im­me­dia­te vi­ci­ni­ty of the cast­le is con­ve­nient for ta­king pic­tu­res from a slight­ly long­er per­spe­cti­ve, espe­cial­ly from the north­east and pos­si­bly from the south, whe­re the­re is a lot of spa­ce and no re­si­den­tial buil­dings. Ho­we­ver, you should al­ways re­mem­ber to fly res­pon­si­bly.





ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS OF THE CASTLE IN 名INY



GETTING THERE


T

he castle stands on a rocky, forested hill in the Bol­ko­wskie Foot­hills ge­o­gra­phi­cal reg­ion, about 2 km north of Bol­k闚. Its pic­tu­res­que pro­fi­le is per­fect­ly vi­si­ble from the north, from the ro­ad no. 323 le­ading from Ja­wor to Bol­k闚. To get the cast­le, You need to turn from this ro­ad in the up­per part of vil­la­ge in­to a nar­row, steep al­ley, which le­ads di­rect­ly to ru­ins (the­re is a sign­post). (map of cast­les in Lo­wer Si­le­sia)



You can leave your car in the small cle­ar­ing ne­ar the cast­le ga­te. The par­king pla­ce is free-of-char­ge (2020).


You can ask the ga­te­keep­er for per­mis­sion to bring your bike in­to the cas­tle court­yard.





BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. M. Chorowska: Rezydencje 鈔edniowieczne na 奸御ku, OFPWW 2003
2. O. Czerner, J. Rozp璠owski, Bolk闚 i 安iny, Ossolineum 1960
3. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Ko這dziejski: Leksykon zamk闚 w Polsce, Arkady 2001
4. R. ㄆczy雟ki: Zamki, dwory i pa豉ce w Sudetach, Wsp鏊nota Akademicka 2008
5. M. Perzy雟ki: Zamki, twierdze i pa豉ce Dolnego 奸御ka i Opolszczyzny, WDW 2006
6. M. 安ie篡: Zamki, twierdze, warownie, Foto Art 2002
7. A. M. Rosiek: Siedziby rycerskie w ks. 鈍idnicko-jaworskim do ko鎍a XIV wieku, Inst. Arch. UJ 2010
8. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019


SOUTHERN ELEVATION OF THE LOWER CASTLE WITH THE GATEWAY

VIEW OF THE CASTLE AND CASTLE CHURCH FROM THE NORTH


Castles nearby:
Bolk闚 - the ruins of ducal castle from the 13th century, 4 km
K豉czyna - the relics of castle from the 15th century, 9 km
Lipa - the ruins of knight's castle from the 14th century, 10 km
P這nina - the ruins of knight's castle from the 14th century, 12 km
Jawor - the ducal castle from the 13/14th century, rebuilt, 16 km
My郵ib鏎z - the relics of castle from the 13/14th century, 18 km




WORTH SEEING:



Romanesque-Gothic castle church of St. Nicholas, which is the ol­dest pre­ser­ved count­ry church in Si­le­sia, first men­tio­ned in 1313. It is a sim­ple sing­le-ais­le build­ing with a ga­ble roof and a to­wer at­ta­ched from the west. Insi­de you will find va­lu­ab­le equip­ment from the 15th to the 16th cen­tu­ry, among others, the lod­ges of Lords von Schwei­ni­chen and pain­ted ben­ches for pe­asan­try (who­se di­men­sions cor­res­pond to the ave­ra­ge height of a man 400 ye­ars ago and to­day are a bit tight), wood­en Go­thic en­tran­ce door and a Re­nais­san­ce bap­tis­mal font. Ho­we­ver, the uniq­ue and most va­lu­ab­le de­co­ra­tion he­re are the tomb­sto­nes of the von Schwei­ni­chen fa­mi­ly and the mag­ni­fi­cent epi­taph of Jo­hann Si­gis­mund von Schwei­ni­chen (d. 1664). Op­po­si­te the en­tran­ce to the church, in the old lin­den al­ley, the­re is a mo­nu­ment com­me­mo­ra­ting Ger­man sold­iers, the in­ha­bi­tants of Bol­k闚 and sur­round­ing vil­la­ges, kil­led du­ring the First World War.


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text: 2011, 2020
photographs: 2005, 2008, 2019, 2020
© Jacek Bednarek