HOME PAGE

EUROPEAN CASTLES

GALLERY

MAPS

GUESTBOOK

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CONTACT ME
BARANÓW SANDOMIERSKI

BARCIANY

BARDO ŚLĄSKIE

BĄKOWA GÓRA

BESIEKIERY

BĘDZIN

BIERUTÓW

BIESTRZYKÓW

BOBOLICE

BOBROWNIKI

BODZENTYN

BOLESTRASZYCE

BOLKÓW

BORYSŁAWICE ZAMKOWE

BROCHÓW

BRODNICA

BRZEG

BUKOWIEC

BYDLIN

BYSTRZYCA KŁODZKA

CHĘCINY

CHOJNICA

CHOJNIK

CIECHANÓW

CIESZÓW

CIESZYN

CZARNY BÓR

CZERNA

CZERNINA

CZERSK

CZĘSTOCHOWA

CZOCHA

CZORSZTYN

ĆMIELÓW

DĄBROWA

DĄBRÓWNO

DRZEWICA

DZIAŁDOWO

DZIERZGOŃ

FREDROPOL (KORMANICE)

GDAŃSK

GIŻYCKO

GLIWICE

GŁOGÓW

GNIEW

GNIEWOSZÓW Z.SZCZERBA

GOLUB-DOBRZYŃ

GOŁAŃCZ

GOLCZEWO

GOŁUCHÓW

GOŚCISZÓW

GÓRA

GRODZIEC

GRÓDEK

GRUDZIĄDZ

GRZĘDY

GRZMIĄCA z.ROGOWIEC

INOWŁÓDZ

JANOWICE WIELKIE z.BOLCZÓW

JANOWIEC

JAWOR

JEZIORO GÓRECKIE

KAMIENIEC ZĄBKOWICKI

KAMIENNA GÓRA

KARPNIKI

KAZIMIERZ DOLNY

KĘTRZYN

KĘTRZYN - KOŚCIÓŁ

KIELCE

KLICZKÓW

KŁODZKO

KOŁO

KONARY

KONIN-GOSŁAWICE

KORZKIEW

KOWALEWO POMORSKIE

KOŹMIN WLKP.

KÓRNIK

KRAKÓW

KRAPKOWICE

KRAPKOWICE - OTMĘT

KRASICZYN

KRĘPCEWO

KRUSZWICA

KRZYŻNA GÓRA

KRZYŻTOPÓR

KSIĄŻ WIELKI

KUROZWĘKI

KWIDZYN

LEGNICA

LIDZBARK WARMIŃSKI

LIPA

LUBIN

LUTOMIERSK

ŁAGÓW

ŁĘCZYCA

ŁOWICZ

MAJKOWICE

MALBORK

MAŁA NIESZAWKA

MIĘDZYLESIE

MIĘDZYRZECZ

MIRÓW

MOKRSKO

MOSZNA

MSTÓW

MUSZYNA

MYŚLENICE

NAMYSŁÓW

NIEDZICA

NIDZICA

NIEMCZA

NIEMODLIN

NIEPOŁOMICE

NOWY SĄCZ

NOWY WIŚNICZ

ODRZYKOŃ

OGRODZIENIEC (PODZAMCZE)

OJCÓW

OLEŚNICA

OLSZTYN (JURA)

OLSZTYN (WARMIA)

OLSZTYNEK

OŁAWA

OŁDRZYCHOWICE KŁODZKIE

OPOCZNO

OPOLE GÓRKA

OPOLE OSTRÓWEK

OPORÓW

OSSOLIN

OSTRĘŻNIK

OSTRÓDA

OSTRÓW LEDNICKI

OTMUCHÓW

PABIANICE

PANKÓW

PASTUCHÓW

PIESKOWA SKAŁA

PIOTRKÓW TRYBUNALSKI

PIOTRKÓW-BYKI

PIOTROWICE ŚWIDNICKIE

PŁAKOWICE

PŁOCK

PŁONINA

PŁOTY

PODZAMCZE z.OGRODZIENIEC

PODZAMCZE PIEKOSZOWSKIE

POKRZYWNO

POŁCZYN-ZDRÓJ

POZNAŃ

PRABUTY

PROCHOWICE

PROSZÓWKA z.GRYF

PRZEMYŚL

PRZEWODZISZOWICE

PSZCZYNA

PTKANÓW

PYZDRY

RABSZTYN

RACIĄŻEK

RADŁÓWKA

RADOM

RADZIKI DUŻE

RADZYŃ CHEŁMIŃSKI

RAJSKO

RAKOWICE WIELKIE

RATNO DOLNE

RAWA MAZOWIECKA

RESKO

ROGÓW OPOLSKI

ROŻNÓW ZAMEK DOLNY

ROŻNÓW ZAMEK GÓRNY

RYBNICA

RYBNICA LEŚNA

RYCZÓW

RYDZYNA

RYTWIANY

RZĄSINY

SANDOMIERZ

SANOK

SIEDLĘCIN

SIEDLISKO

SIERADZ

SIERAKÓW

SIEWIERZ

SMOLEŃ

SOBKÓW

SOBOTA

SOCHACZEW

SOSNOWIEC

SREBRNA GÓRA

STARA KAMIENICA

STARE DRAWSKO

STARY SĄCZ

STRZELCE OPOLSKIE

SULEJÓW

SZAMOTUŁY

SZCZECIN

SZTUM

SZUBIN

SZYDŁÓW

SZYMBARK

ŚCINAWKA GÓRNA

ŚWIDWIN

ŚWIEBODZIN

ŚWIECIE n.WISŁĄ

ŚWIECIE k.LEŚNEJ

ŚWINY

TORUŃ

TORUŃ z.DYBÓW

TUCZNO

TYNIEC

UDÓRZ

UJAZD k.TOMASZOWA

UJAZD KRZYŻTOPÓR

UNIEJÓW

URAZ

WAŁBRZYCH z.KSIĄŻ

WAŁBRZYCH z.STARY KSIĄŻ

WAŁBRZYCH z.NOWY DWÓR

WARSZAWA z.KRÓLEWSKI

WARSZAWA z.UJAZDOWSKI

WĄBRZEŹNO

WENECJA

WĘGIERKA

WĘGORZEWO

WIELICZKA

WIELKA WIEŚ

WIERZBNA

WITKÓW

WLEŃ

WOJNOWICE

WOJSŁAWICE

WROCŁAW

WROCŁAW LEŚNICA

WYSZYNA

ZAGÓRZ

ZAGÓRZE ŚLĄSKIE

ZAŁUŻ

ZĄBKOWICE ŚLĄSKIE

ZBĄSZYŃ

ZŁOTORIA k.TORUNIA

ŹRÓDŁA

ŻAGAŃ

ŻARY

ŻELAZNO

ŻMIGRÓD


IMG BORDER=1 style=

THE ROYAL CASTLE IN PIOTRKÓW TRYBUNALSKI, VIEW FROM THE SOUTH



o documents have survived to the present day that would clear­ly in­di­ca­te the exis­ten­ce of a me­die­val ro­yal se­at in Piotr­ków. Ho­we­ver, we can le­arn from other sour­ces that per­haps in cas­trum Pyotr­kow, still wood­en and re­mem­be­ring the ti­mes of Ca­si­mir the Great (d. 1370), knight­ly con­gre­ga­tions we­re held, Wła­dy­sław Ja­gieł­ło (d. 1434) is­su­ed ro­yal acts, and the Teu­to­nic knights cap­tu­red at the Bat­tle of Grun­wald we­re kept. Whe­re­as in 1469 the Czech de­pu­ties sent by Je­rzy Po­die­brad pre­su­ma­bly of­fe­red he­re the ro­yal crown to Wła­dy­sław (d. 1516), the son of Ca­si­mir Ja­giel­loń­czyk, as a re­ward for the help of the Po­les in the war a­gainst the Hun­gar­ian king Ma­ciej Kor­win. The old­est sur­vi­ving sour­ce mes­sa­ge, re­fer­ring di­rect­ly to the ro­yal re­si­den­ce, is a no­te da­ted 1487, in­for­ming a­bout the do­na­tion of 2 cet­nars of le­ad, which was gi­ven by tre­asu­rer to the te­nant Do­bie­sław from Ku­ro­zwę­ki of Po­raj co­at of arms (d. 1496) for re­no­va­tion of the win­dows in the cas­tle. This re­cord, as well as all pre­vious re­la­tions, pro­ve the fun­ctio­ning of so­me re­si­den­ce wi­thin the bor­ders or in the vi­ci­ni­ty of Piotr­ków. Ho­we­ver, both its lo­ca­tion in re­la­tion to the town walls and its ar­chi­te­ctu­ral form re­main un­known, al­though it was pro­ba­bly a re­la­ti­ve small ob­ject, used for short stays of a mo­narch.


IMG BORDER=1 style=

VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE CROSSING OF ZAMKOWY SQUARE AND ZAMKOWA STREET



The central location of Piotrków, on the bor­der­land of the pro­vin­ces of Ma­ło­pol­ska and Wiel­ko­pol­ska, cau­sed that al­re­ady in the first half of the 13th cen­tu­ry, the first con­gre­ga­tions of knights of the Łę­czy­ca pro­vin­ce and the du­cal courts we­re or­ga­ni­zed the­re. The­se tra­di­tions we­re con­ti­nu­ed by the Du­ke of Sie­radz, and la­ter by the King of Po­land, Wła­dy­sław Ło­kie­tek (d. 1333), un­der who­se le­ader­ship the con­gres­ses of re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ves of the land fa­mil­ies we­re held he­re; it is li­ke­ly that the vil­la­ge was gran­ted town rights on his ini­tia­ti­ve. After the re­uni­fi­ca­tion of the Po­lish lands, du­ring the reign of the last two Piasts, Piotr­ków de­ve­lo­ped in­ten­si­ve­ly, was sur­roun­ded by a de­fen­si­ve wall, and its eco­no­mic sig­ni­fi­can­ce in re­la­tion to neigh­bour­ing ur­ban cen­tres be­ca­me do­mi­nant. This is pro­ved by the 14th cen­tu­ry va­lu­ation of the Piotr­ków town of­fi­ce, amount­ing to 130 ki­lo­grams of sil­ver a­gainst on­ly 14 ki­lo­grams of­fe­red for the Wol­bórz town of­fi­ce. Du­ring the li­fe of Ca­si­mir the Gre­at the town was the se­at of the no­ble courts: the land courts and the town coun­cils, which du­ring the reign of King Wła­dy­sław Ja­gieł­ło took the form of or­ga­ni­zed na­tio­nal con­gres­ses, whe­re pri­vi­le­ges we­re is­su­ed and con­fe­de­ra­tions we­re e­sta­blish­ed. The first Ge­ne­ral Sejm in Piotr­ków took pla­ce in 1444 and was main­ly fo­cu­sed on Wła­dy­sław III's in­vol­ve­ment in the war with Tur­key. In the fol­lo­wing ye­ars, new ru­lers of Po­land we­re e­lec­ted he­re, con­sti­tu­tions we­re e­sta­blish­ed, no­ble and ro­yal pri­vi­le­ges we­re gran­ted and a­bo­lish­ed, tax­es we­re im­po­sed, and even the pri­ces of so­me pro­ducts we­re de­ci­ded.

Piotrków lost its status as the Sejm town with the sig­ning of the Lub­lin Union be­tween Po­land and Li­thu­ania in 1569, as a re­sult of which - due to its mo­re con­ve­nient lo­ca­tion - the par­lia­ment was mo­ved to War­saw. Due to good ac­ces­si­bi­li­ty and a lar­ge num­ber of beds, the town was bur­de­ned with other tasks, be­co­ming from 1578 the se­at of the Crown Tri­bu­nal for the re­gions of Wiel­ko­pol­ska, Ma­zow­sze, Ku­ja­wy and Ro­yal Prus­sia. Ho­we­ver, un­til 1792 the ses­sions of the tri­bu­nals we­re u­su­al­ly held not in the cas­tle but in the town hall.



HISTORICAL PLAN OF THE TOWN PIOTRKÓW: 1. ROYAL CASTLE, 2. PARISH CHURCH OF ST. JACOB, 3. JESUIT ORDER MONASTERY, 4. DOMINICAN MONASTERY,
5. DOMINICAN MONASTERY (FEMALE), 6. BERNARDINE MONASTERY, 7. FRANCISCAN MONASTERY, 8. TOWN SQUARE, 9. DEFENSIVE WALLS,
10. WOLBÓRZ GATE, 11. SIERADZ GATE


ith development of the town's parliamentary fun­ctions, the ex­pec­ta­tions of the ru­ler and ro­yal of­fi­cials re­gar­ding the stan­dard of stay and con­duct of pro­ceed­ings ha­ve chan­ged. In the new re­ali­ty, the exist­ing form of the buil­ding did not meet the needs of the ro­yal court, so the na­tu­ral ten­den­cy was to build a com­fort­ab­le pa­la­ce, which in ad­di­tion to its re­si­den­tial fun­ction was to be a cen­ter of ro­yal po­wer. Thus, Zyg­munt I Sta­ry (d. 1548) com­mis­sio­ned to erect a new Tur­ris In Mo­dum Ar­cis which would meet the re­qui­re­ments of the Grand Crown Sejm. He as­sig­ned the con­stru­ction work to Be­ne­dict, pro­ba­bly co­ming from Up­per Hun­ga­ry, who was al­so acting as a ro­yal ar­chi­tect in Cra­cow and San­do­mierz. From the ar­chi­ves da­ted 1511, do­cu­men­ting the pay­ment of 10 flo­rins by the Crown Chan­cel­lor Krzy­sztof Szy­dło­wiec­ki, it can be as­su­med that the or­ga­ni­za­tion of the ro­yal in­vest­ment star­ted that year. The main con­stru­ction work on the three-sto­rey to­wer buil­ding pro­ba­bly las­ted un­til 1519, and cer­tain­ly not lon­ger than 1521, when the pri­va­te mass ce­le­bra­ted for the king in his a­part­ment is men­tio­ned. Du­ring his reign, Zyg­munt Sta­ry vi­si­ted Piotr­ków at least 16 ti­mes, but it should be no­ted that the pa­la­ce was ge­ne­ral­ly used by the ru­ler on­ly for a few weeks a ye­ar, du­ring the ses­sions of the Sejm.



BURNING CASTLE IN E. DAHLBERG'S FIGURE FROM THE WORK OF S. PUFENDORF DE REBUS A CAROLO GUSTAVO GESTIS, 1656
ON THE RIGHT, THE NO LONGER EXISTING FRANCISCAN MONASTERY


fter death of Zygmunt Stary, the Piotrków tower lost its fun­ction as a ro­yal re­si­den­ce, al­though Queen Bo­na (d. 1557) was still he­re for so­me ti­me. Al­so Zyg­munt Au­gust (d. 1572) was not in­te­re­sted in adap­ting the buil­ding to his own needs and du­ring his stays at the Sejm he cho­se a mo­re pri­va­te ma­nor hou­se in the su­burb of Bu­gaj. Thus, in the se­cond half of 16th cen­tu­ry, the buil­ding be­ca­me on­ly the pla­ce of Sejm's meet­ings, and when it was mo­ved to War­saw in 1567, the to­wer was de­sig­na­ted as the seat of the sta­rosts. In 1588 the sta­rost of Piotr­ków was An­drzej Ze­brzy­dow­ski of Rad­wan co­at of arms, who died that ye­ar. The com­pe­ten­ces of his of­fi­ce in­clu­ded jud­ging ca­ses con­cer­ning the so-cal­led four mu­ni­ci­pal ar­ti­cles. A re­min­der of tho­se ti­mes are the 16th cen­tu­ry na­mes en­gra­ved by de­fen­dants on the walls of the lo­west floor of the ca­stle, among them Mi­ko­łaj Odrzy­wol­ski 1581, Roch Sie­ra­kow­ski 1565 etc. Mar­gi­na­li­sa­tion of po­li­ti­cal fun­ction of the to­wer and col­lap­se of pre­sti­ge of the for­mer ro­yal re­si­den­ce ha­ve been re­flec­ted in ex­pen­ses in­cur­red for its main­te­nan­ce, which ha­ve been sig­ni­fi­cant­ly re­du­ced. As a re­sult, as ear­ly as 1611 the buil­ding was ve­ry ne­glec­ted, which is in­di­ca­ted by a frag­ment of the vet­ting: the mo­at was flood­ed with slud­ge, the pa­li­sa­de was al­most en­ti­re­ly over­thrown, and on­ly ru­ins of the for­mer ga­te re­main. Ho­we­ver, the re­al de­stru­ction was cau­sed du­ring the wars with Swe­den, espe­cial­ly the sie­ge of 1657, when the ca­stle was first com­ple­te­ly rob­bed by the Swe­des and then burnt down by Po­lish ar­my of Ste­fan Czar­ne­cki. Its re­con­stru­ction was un­der­ta­ken by the sta­rost of Piotr­ków, Mi­chał War­szy­cki of Ab­dank coat of arms (d. 1697), who in the ye­ars 1668-71 esta­bli­shed a new di­vi­sion of in­ter­iors with Ba­ro­que de­co­ra­tion and fi­re­pla­ces in the pla­ces of Re­nais­san­ce sto­ves, pla­ste­red the walls and co­ve­red the buil­ding with a tent roof. Ho­we­ver, the works car­ried out on War­szy­cki's ini­tia­ti­ve did not in­clu­de the re­con­stru­ction of the Re­nais­san­ce at­tic nor the sur­roun­ding for­ti­fi­ca­tions, so in the se­cond half of 17th cen­tu­ry the ca­stle fi­nal­ly lost its mi­li­ta­ry sig­ni­fi­can­ce.


CASTLE IN PIOTRKÓW TRYBUNALSKI, KŁOSY 1868


THE TOWER IN POLKOWSKI'S FIGURE, TYGODNIK ILUSTROWANY



THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS AND LEGAL ACTS ESTABLISHED IN PIOTRKÓW

- the Grand Master of Teutonic Order Henrik von Plauen pays homage to Ka­zi­mierz Ja­giel­loń­czyk, 1469
- adoption of the Constitution with the conscription act, 1493
- enactment of the so-called Piotrków privilege limiting the economic basis of town development, we­ake­ning the rights of towns­men and ty­ing pe­asants to the land, 1496
- restriction of royal power: no consent for the king to dispose of the crown property on his own, 1503/4
- reduction in the price of spices and liquors, 1524
- resolution prohibiting the purchasing of landed property by townspeople, 1538
- conflict between Zygmunt August and the nobility regarding his marriage to Bar­ba­ra Ra­dzi­wił­łów­na, 1548
- a proposal of the Protestant nobility to establish a Polish national church independent from the Po­pe, 1555
- deep tax reform (increasing taxes paid by the nobility and the church, fiscal relief for pe­asant sta­te) and mi­li­ta­ry (esta­blish­ing ru­les for fi­nan­cing the ar­my), 1562/63
- monetary reform to set the exchange rate of a foreign currency in relation to its own, 1567




THE TOWER ON XIX-CENTURY DRAWINGS, BELOW A SKETCH SHOWING THE APPEARANCE OF THE TOWER AFTER CONVERSION INTO AN ORTHODOX CHURCH


ue to increasing negligence, in the 18th century the buil­ding fell in­to a de­te­rio­ra­ting con­di­tion, which could not be per­ma­nent­ly im­pro­ved by the tem­po­ra­ry re­pairs car­ried out by suc­ces­si­ve sta­rosts. After the li­qui­da­tion of Po­lish of­fi­ces by oc­cu­py­ing Prus­sian ad­mi­ni­stra­tion, wa­re­hou­ses we­re set up the­re, and when in 1865 a fi­re de­stro­yed the en­ti­re east­ern dis­trict of the town, the da­ma­ged buil­ding was han­ded over to Rus­sian troops sta­tio­ned in Piotr­ków. Fol­lo­wing the de­ci­sion of the lo­cal au­tho­ri­ties, the high­est sto­rey of the ca­stle was de­mo­li­shed, as well as cor­ni­ces and win­dow sills and Re­nais­san­ce por­tals we­re re­mo­ved. The pre­ser­ved in­ter­iors we­re re­no­va­ted, the up­per floors we­re a­dap­ted for an ar­mo­ury and a mi­li­ta­ry of­fi­ce, and the cel­lars for a ba­ke­ry. Be­tween them, a gar­ri­son church was set up on the ground floor, who­se pre­sen­ce in this pla­ce was em­pha­si­zed by a new roof with a cha­ra­cte­ri­stic church do­me. After Po­land re­gain­ed its in­de­pen­den­ce, the mo­nu­ment was han­ded over to the town' s di­vi­sion of the Sight­see­ing So­cie­ty, and then, after car­ry­ing out the ne­ces­sa­ry re­no­va­tion and ada­pta­tion works, it ser­ved as the seat of the lo­cal mu­se­um from 1922. The ca­stle sur­vi­ved the Se­cond World War with­out any da­ma­ge and al­re­ady in 1947 the Re­gio­nal Mo­nu­ment Con­ser­va­tor de­ci­ded to re­sto­re its Re­nais­san­ce fe­atu­res. The main con­stru­ction works we­re car­ried out he­e in 1963-72 and re­sul­ted in, among other things, re­con­stru­ction of the se­cond floor of the buil­ding and the cur­rent sha­pe of the roof.



IMG BORDER=1 style=

PIOTRKÓW CASTLE IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD AND AT PRESENT: HIGHER - WESTERN ELEVATION, LOWER - VIEW FROM THE SOUTH



he royal tower was erected on the eastern pe­ri­phe­ries of the town, on a mound, and was sur­roun­ded by a mo­at sup­plied by the wa­ters of Stra­wa Ri­ver, who­se bed se­pa­ra­ted the ca­stle from the town. The term "ca­stle" has a sym­bo­lic me­aning in this ca­se and is of­ten quest­io­ned; apart from the ex­ter­nal de­fen­ce sys­tems such as a pa­li­sa­de or the mo­at men­tio­ned a­bo­ve, the to­wer did not ha­ve e­vi­dent mi­li­ta­ry fe­atu­res and from the ve­ry be­gin­ning its pur­po­se was to re­ali­se the ru­ler's re­si­den­tial and re­pre­sen­ta­ti­ve am­bi­tions ra­ther than to pro­vi­de a stra­te­gic ad­van­ta­ge in ca­se of ar­med con­flicts. The Go­thic-Re­nais­san­ce to­wer pa­la­ce was rai­sed a­bo­ve the sur­roun­ding a­rea to the height of three sto­reys with the ground floor, which was built with a so­lid wall ma­de of era­tic sto­nes. The buil­ding was de­sig­ned on a re­ctan­gu­lar plan with si­des of about 18.5x20 me­ters, lon­ger si­des fa­cing south and north. The walls are di­ver­si­fied by win­dow fra­mes ma­de of li­me­sto­ne with de­co­ra­tion re­fer­ring to ar­chi­te­ctu­ral de­tails of the ro­yal ca­stle in Cra­cow. The cha­rac­te­ri­stic fe­atu­re of the win­dows is that star­ting from the ground floor their si­ze in­cre­ases with the height of the buil­ding. The lack of win­dows in the out­er­most axes of the north­ern and east­ern e­le­va­tions in­di­ca­tes a stair­ca­se le­ading he­re, and their ab­sen­ce in the cen­tral part of west­ern e­le­va­tion re­sults from the la­tri­ne bays o­ri­gi­nal­ly pla­ced he­re. The front walls are de­void of de­co­ra­tions, on­ly in the strip be­tween the ground floor and the first floor of the south­ern wall a sto­ne car­tou­che with an ima­ge of the Ja­giel­lo­nian Eagle was pla­ced in the in­ter­war per­iod. The main en­tran­ce to the to­wer is lo­ca­ted at east­ern cor­ner, sur­roun­ded by an ar­ca­ded sand­sto­ne por­tal. It is as­su­med that the buil­ding was ori­gi­nal­ly co­ve­red with a ga­ble roof, per­haps de­co­ra­ted with a Re­nais­san­ce at­tic. In the 16th cen­tu­ry, the ro­yal re­si­den­ce was sur­roun­ded by wood­en buil­dings or a half-tim­be­red struc­tu­re, in which the ro­yal court could re­si­de and meet­ings of the Sejm took pla­ce.


GROUND FLOOR PLAN ACCORDING TO T. JAKIMOWICZ


n all storeys of the tower a division into three rooms for­med by cros­sing of two walls at right an­gles was used. In this way, two west­ern cham­bers on each floor got a squa­re plan, and a lar­ge cham­ber on the east­ern si­de re­cei­ved a plan of a rec­tan­gle. The two low­est sto­reys of the cas­tle we­re in­ten­ded to per­form tasks sup­port­ing its re­si­dent­ial and ad­mi­ni­stra­ti­ve fun­ctions. In vault­ed cel­lars the tre­asu­ry and ar­chi­ves we­re kept, and so­me­ti­mes the de­tain­ees we­re also im­pri­so­ned the­re. On the ground floor, which, li­ke all the other floors, was co­ve­red with a wood­en cei­ling, the apart­ment of the cham­ber­lain, the court of­fi­cial res­pon­si­ble for per­so­nal sa­fe­ty of the king, was ar­ran­ged. Abo­ve them we­re the king's pri­va­te rooms with a lar­ge cham­ber cal­led Pa­la­tium Stu­bam Su­per­io­rem, whi­le the high­est le­vel was oc­cu­pied by the main pa­ra­de hall. All abo­ve­ground floors of the to­wer we­re cha­rac­te­ri­zed by a re­pe­ti­ti­ve lay­out in­clu­ding a small room and a lar­ge cham­ber pre­ce­ded by a hall. Ver­ti­cal com­mu­ni­ca­tion was car­ried out by a vaul­ted stair­ca­se lo­ca­ted in the north­east­ern cor­ner of the buil­ding, ope­ning to hu­ge cham­bers on each le­vel. It is worth men­tio­ning that the top floor of the to­wer was de­mo­lish­ed by Rus­sians in the ni­ne­teenth cen­tu­ry, and cur­rent­ly exist­ing is a re­con­stru­ction ma­de after World War II.


TOWER CROSS-SECTION ACCORDING TO T. JAKIMOWICZ: 1 . BASEMENTS, 2. CHAMBERLAIN'S SUITES, 3. ROYAL APARTMENTS, 4. REPRESENTATIVE HALL



he barrel vaults of the cellars, Baroque lin­tels on the first floor with the c­oat of arms of Mi­chał War­szy­cki ha­ve been pre­ser­ved un­til to­day. Mo­dest frag­ments of red mar­ble floor­ing ha­ve al­so sur­vi­ved, as well as part of the rich­ly or­na­men­ted sto­ne­ma­son­ry of win­dow fra­mes and por­tals in the door­ways le­ading from the hall­way to the ro­yal cham­bers. On the walls we can al­so see rem­nants of 16th cen­tu­ry paint­ings and pla­sters, per­haps still re­mem­be­ring the ti­mes of ro­yal sejms. At pre­sent, the cas­tle hou­ses the Mu­se­um with a per­ma­nent ex­hi­bi­tion co­ve­ring is­su­es from the fields of ar­cha­eolo­gy, ethno­gra­phy, his­to­ry, mi­li­ta­ria and art. Apart from ar­te­facts do­cu­men­ting the pre­hi­sto­ry of Piotr­ków's land, a re­con­stru­ction of a 19th cen­tu­ry count­ry ho­­me­ste­ad and an ex­hi­bi­tion of Re­nais­san­ce and Ba­ro­que ari­sto­cra­tic in­ter­iors with a col­le­ction of Gdańsk fur­ni­tu­re are avai­la­ble on each floor of the to­wer. The Mu­se­um al­so has a di­ver­se col­le­ction of old we­apons, of which the old­est swords are par­ti­cu­lar­ly no­te­wor­thy (in­clu­ding Teu­to­nic Knights' sword from the be­gin­ning of XIV cen­tu­ry and the short sword used in the exe­cu­tions), scy­thes used du­ring the Ko­ściu­szko In­sur­re­ction and other ni­ne­teenth-cen­tu­ry upri­sings, and an ar­se­nal of over 200 fi­re­arms. The walls of the to­wer are de­co­ra­ted with port­rait paint­ing gal­le­ry with ima­ges of Po­lish kings and du­kes, cre­ated in the se­cond half of the 18th cen­tu­ry by an un­known ar­tist. The ex­hi­bi­tion is sup­ple­men­ted by sculp­tu­res and ob­jects of ar­tis­tic crafts­man­ship, as well as nu­me­rous his­to­ri­cal me­mo­ra­bi­lia con­nec­ted with Piotr­ków and its in­ha­bi­tants.


Muzeum w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim
Plac Zamkowy 4, 97-300 Piotrków Trybunalski
tel. 44 64 652 72
e-mail: sekretariat(at)muzeumpiotrkow.pl

Opening hours



IMG BORDER=1 style=

IMG BORDER=1 style=

MUSEUM EXHIBITION AT THE ROYAL CASTLE IN PIOTRKÓW



he tower is situated at Castle Square in the older, for­mer­ly Je­wish dis­trict of the ci­ty, about 300 me­ters east of the Mar­ket Squa­re. A lar­ge car park is lo­ca­ted vis-a-vis the south­ern ele­va­tion of the cas­tle, on Zam­ko­wa Street. Pe­ople tra­vel­ling by train after le­aving the rail­way sta­tion should head north on Pol­skiej Or­ga­ni­za­cji Woj­sko­wej Street and then east on Woj­ska Pol­skie­go Street. A walk along this way ta­kes 20 mi­nu­tes.




1. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kołodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
2. A. R. Sypek: Zamki i warownie ziemi mazowieckiej, TRIO 2002
3. Piotrków Trybunalski i okolice - przewodnik, it 1997
4. T. Ratajczak: Podróże władcy i architektura. Przebudowa królewskich rezydencji za panowania Z. Starego
5. T. Ratajczak: Nie tylko Wawel. Przebudowy monarszych rezydencji w Królestwie Polskim...
6. T. Ratajczak: Udział mistrza Benedykta w przebudowie zamku wawelskiego, Studia Waweliana 2009
7. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019


IMG BORDER=1 style=

IMG BORDER=1 style=

THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE TOWER: ABOVE A FRAGMENT OF THE WESTERN WALL, BELOW THE NORTHERN ELEVATION
WITH AN ENTRANCE TO THE HALLWAY AND CELLARS (IN THE BACKGROUND)


Castles nearby:
Piotrków Trybunalski-Byki - fortified manor house from 15-17th century, 5 km
Sulejów - fortified Cistercian abbey from 13-16th century., 21 km
Ujazd - relics of a knight's castle from 15th century, 28 km
Majkowice - ruins of fortified manor house from 16th century, 40 km
Pabianice - fortified manor house from 16th century, 40 km
Bąkowa Góra - ruins of fortified manor house from 15th century, 41 km



It is worth seeing also:


Situated at Tadeusz Kosciuszko Square, the church and monastery of Bernardines, erected in the first half of the 17th cen­tu­ry on the ini­tia­ti­ve of Flor­ian Star­czew­ski. The sa­cral buil­dings re­pre­sent the Ba­ro­que sty­le, with rich in­ter­ior de­co­ra­tion, whe­re the "mi­ra­cu­lous" ima­ge of Our La­dy from 1625, paint­ed on a cop­per sheet, is espe­cial­ly pro­mi­nent. In the east­ern part of mo­na­ste­ry the­re is a cha­ra­cte­ri­stic Ba­ro­que ga­te, whi­le in the west the­re is a for­mer mo­nas­tic gar­den, ta­ken away from the Ber­nar­di­nes in the 19th cen­tu­ry and trans­for­med in­to a park. On the op­po­site si­de of the squa­re the­re are the buil­dings of the his­to­ric fe­ma­le Do­mi­ni­can mo­na­ste­ry, which, when in­te­gra­ted in­to the me­die­val de­fen­si­ve walls, is one of the most cha­ra­cte­ri­stic sym­bols of the ci­ty. After re­no­va­tion in 2015, a cul­tu­ral in­sti­tu­tion cal­led the Cen­tre for Ide­as To­wards De­mo­cra­cy was ope­ned, whe­re, among other things, ex­hi­bi­tions and open-air con­certs are or­ga­ni­zed. He­ading to­wards the cas­tle we pass the 14th cen­tu­ry Try­bu­nal­ski Mar­ket Squa­re, the lar­gest his­to­ri­cal squa­re in the ci­ty with ori­gi­nal ur­ban lay­out, con­sist­ing of eight streets in­ter­sec­ting at its four cor­ners. The cen­tral part of the mar­ket was oc­cu­pied by the town hall (no lon­ger exis­ting), pro­ba­bly erec­ted in the 15th cen­tu­ry, in which the Crown Tri­bu­nal was held un­til 1792.


IMG

IMG

IMG

IMG

IMG

IMG




HOME PAGE

text: 2020
photographs: 2018
© by Jacek Bednarek