anok was mentioned for the first time in
Ipatiewski Kodeks in 1150, which contained information about the occupation of Czerwieńskie Grody by the Hungarian king
Gejza II (d. 1162). Its existence was recorded once again in 1205 on the occasion of a meeting held here between the Hungarian king
Andrew II (d. 1235) and Anna Eufrozyna, the widow of prince Roman Halicki (d. 1205), and also in 1231, when in the Carpathian Chronicle its location at Hungarian gates, i.e. near the mountain passes, was indicated. It should be assumed that all these mentions refer not yet to the current location of the town, but rather concern a settlement which in the early Middle Ages operated on Horodyszcze hill situated a few kilometres to the north. At that time, on the castle hill, there may have already existed a fortified stronghold, but of lesser importance than Horodyszcze mentioned earlier. Its dynamic development should be connected with the collapse of the former centre of the local Old Russian authority, possibly caused by the Mongol invasion in the mid-13th century. As a consequence, the administration was transferred to Sanok, which in 1339 became a town.
CASTLES SOBIEŃ, SANOK AND LESKO ON THE MAP "POLONIAE FINITIMARUMQUE LOCORUM DESRIPTIO", 1579
he death of Bolesław Jurij (d. 1340) was used by the Polish king
Casimir the Great (d. 1370), who in the years 1340-41 carried out an armed invasion, as a result of which he incorporated the Sanok Land and its newly established town Sanok into his kingdom. Soon, on his initiative, a mighty tower with thick walls and underground prison was erected in the northern part of the hill, and the whole was surrounded by a defensive wall. The construction of the brick castle was accompanied by investments in the fortification of the town, as well as building of the Gothic church of St. Michael the Archangel. The intensive bricklaying activity of Casimir the Great was probably due to the need to ensure the necessary defense of new land in the context of its peripheral location in the vicinity of the Moldovan Land and the Kingdom of Hungary. The castle was administered by royal starosts, the first of whom we know was Piotr, mentioned in 1352, followed by Benedik (1376-77), Tomko Nashalka and Piotr Kmita of
Szreniawa coat of arms, voivode of Cracow and Sandomierz, who held office in the years 1391-98. In 1366, king Casimir himself stayed here for a long time, and during his reign he visited Sanok three times.
VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE SOUTH, EMANUEL VON KROMBACH 1825
he castle had great moments during the reign of
Władysław Jagiełło (d. 1434). This is where the wedding of the Polish king with
Elżbieta Granowska (d. 1420) took place on 2 May 1417. The relationship between Jagiełło, still without a descendant, and a 45-year-old woman met with criticism and even mockery of the public opinion, the most radical voice of which was the libel written by bishop Stanisław Ciołek, in which the author compared Elżbieta to an old, exhausted stinking sow. The discontent with the king's decision was widespread, as evidenced by a fragment of notes by a certain Bielski: The king, who was supposed to chase the enemy, preferred to make a wedding in Sanok. He took Elżbieta, who had been kidnapped before by one Moravian, and later by another, and then was with Granowski. No one knew why the king liked her, because she was old and sick. It is not surprising, therefore, that when, after three years of marriage, Elżbieta died of tuberculosis, the news of her death covered the royal court and the whole kingdom with deep joy, because all were happy that the disgrace of the king had been erased and during the funeral people gave a greater ovation than during the coronation [...]. All dressed in more festive clothes took part in the queen's funeral ceremony, laughing and cheering. After the death of Władysław Jagiełło, his last, fourth wife, a Russian princess
Zofia Holszańska (d. 1461), has moved to Sanok. A clay tower was mentioned at that time, whose name indicates the use of brick as a material for its construction.
VIEW OF THE CASTLE AND THE TOWN FROM BIAŁA GÓRA, WATERCOLOUR FROM 1847
"CASTLE IN SANOK ON THE SAN RIVER FROM THE SOUTH", MACIEJ BOGUSZ STĘCZYŃSKI 1846
t the beginning of 16th century the castle became the property of
Bona Sforza (d. 1557), who, although she had never been in Sanok, made a decision to rebuild the residence in the Renaissance style. By order of the queen, under the supervision of Mikołaj Wolski of
Półkozic coat of arms (d. 1548), in the years 1523-48 a magnificent two-storey residential building was erected, as well as a new entrance gate and royal bathroom, a number of utility buildings were added and a new well carved. The scope of work was so wide that we can actually talk about building a new castle on the walls of an old Gothic stronghold. Its layout changed during the office of Mikołaj Cikowski, who in 1558-72 enlarged the living space by adding two wings and fortified it with a brick tower. Just before this second rebuilding, the residence was owned by daughter of
Sigismund the Old and Bona, Hungarian queen
Izabela Jagiellonka (d. 1559). After losing the civil war and unfortunate agreements with the Austrian Emperor
Ferdinand Habsburg, Izabela spent her stay in Sanok trying to regain the Hungarian throne, which she succeeded in the autumn of 1565. Since then, the political significance of starosts' head office has weakened.
WOOD ENGRAVING FROM 1863
STAROSTS AT THE CASTLE IN SANOK
Benedykt (Benedik, Benco, Bencone) of Sandomierz (from 1377),
Piotr Kmita of Wiśnicz (1391-1398),
Klemens Moskarzewski of Moskorzewo (1399-1400),
Ścibor of Olędowo (1400-1410),
Wierzbięta of Branice (1412),
Drużbanta of Branice (1418),
Janusz z Kobylan (1420-1430),
Klemens Kmita from Sobień castle (1421),
Mikołaj of Chrząstowo Chrząstowski (1430-1437),
Jan Kuropatwa de Laczuchow (1442-1446),
Wojciech of Michowo (1446-1450),
Mikołaj Pieniążek of Witowice (1450-1474),
Stanisław Pieniążek of Witowice (1474-1493),
Jakub Pieniążek (1493), Sebastian Lubomirski (until 1558),
Mikołaj Cikowski, Jerzy Mniszech (ca. 1578),
Stanisław Bonifacy Mniszech (1602),
Franciszek Bernard Mniszech (1613),
Andrzej Drohojowski (1652),
Jerzy Wandalin Mniszech (1661),
Antoni Dunin Wąsowicz (1745), Józef Wandalin Mniszech
CASTLE ON LITOGRAPHY BY NAPOLEON ORDA, "ALBUM WIDOKÓW" 1880
espite the fact that some investments were undertaken later on the castle hill, their scope was not sufficient to preserve the usable functions of the starost's seat and in second half of the 18th century castle was in a very poor condition. After Galicia was seized by the Austrian invader, the new authorities ordered to demolish elements of the castle's military architecture, including walls, gates and the tower. Only residential wings left, which were rebuilt and adapted for office purposes. In 1809 the castle hill was temporarily taken over by the Polish troops, which, under the command of
Franciszek Ksawery Krasicki (d. 1844), heroically defended it against attack by
imperial regiment. As a result of battles between the Russian and Austrian armies during World War I, the south wing was destroyed, and in 1915 - demolished. The former moat was levelled too. From that time until 2010, the castle building remained virtually unchanged.
VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE NORTH-EAST, PHOTO FROM THE 1890S
fter Poland regained independence the castle housed the Sanok Land Museum, which provided access to archaeological exhibits, works of art, crafts, numismatic items, books and documents related to the region, obtained in the field or donated by local people. For several years in the 1930s, Bishop
Grzegorz Iwanowycz Łakota (d. 1950) had his office here. After the war, he
was arrested by Narodnyj komissariat wnutriennich dieł SSSR and deported to gulag where he died. In the 1930s, the castle also housed the Road Administration, the School Council, as well as apartment of the starost. After the Germans entered Sanok in 1939, they plundered the castle, and later set up in its premises the Lemko Museum, managed by Ukrainian painter
Leon Getz (d. 1971). At that time, until June 1941, the Sanok castle was located near the Molotov Line, at the border between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia. Thus, it became a part of the fortifications called the Galicia Boundary Position. One of the links of these fortifications is a concrete bunker erected under the castle square, which we can see today as part of the museum exhibition.
COLOURED PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE CASTLE FROM THE 1930S, IN THE PICTURE BELOW THERE IS A CASTLE WELL
AND FRAGMENT OF THE GRAND HOUSE WESTERN ELEVATION
t the end of the war, the Germans stole surviving memorabilia of Polish culture. Fortunately, some of them were later found in the vicinity of Legnica and transferred to the main archives in Warsaw and Rzeszów. After 1944, the castle was used for various purposes to respond to the urgent needs of its time, including a military hospital and a gunnery. The first research and conservation work began in 1952, while in the 1960s
the Renaissance wing was thoroughly renovated and the museum exhibitions were reopened. In 2010-13, the new southern wing was erected. As part of revitalization of the castle hill, some of perimeter walls were also reconstructed and the foundations of Gothic tower were topped up.
THE ROYAL CASTLE AFTER RENOVATION, VIEW FROM THE WEST (1970)
he castle was built on a hill, whose eastern slope descends steeply towards the San River and southern towards the Płowiecki Stream. Due to the lack of notes relating to Gothic stronghold, its visual appearance and spatial arrangement can only be imagined through archaeological research and to some extent also on the basis of analogy with other constructions of this type built by the last Piasts. We know for sure that around the middle of the 14th century a tower was erected in the north-eastern part of the courtyard. It had a square plan with a side of 10 meters, which at the height of 6 meters was cylindrical in shape. Its height is unknown, but it can be assumed that it measured about 20 meters, while the thickness of walls on the ground floor reached 3 meters. Access to the castle was defended by a dry moat and a 2.5-metre thick stone wall. Perhaps as early as in the 14th century, a one-bay residential house was built in the eastern part of the courtyard, as well as a smaller building in the western part, the purpose of which is currently unknow (it is possible that later on, the archives were kept in it).
PLAN OF A MEDIEVAL CASTLE ACCORDING TO M. ZIELIŃSKA: 1. GOTHIC TOWER, 2. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING, 3. NORTHERN WALL
n years 1523-48 marshal Mikołaj Wolski modernized and rebuilt the Gothic castle. The medieval eastern house was probably demolished then, and on its bases a Renaissance grand house was erected. It was a two-storey building, topped with a gable roof covered with ceramic tiles. Later transformations make it impossible to identify its decoration in detail, but it is known that elevations were ornamented with Renaissance window frames and door portals, and the coats of arms: an eagle, the Sforza family and the Lithuanian Pogoń. The investment was accompanied by demolition of the Orthodox Church of St. Dmitry and removal the remains of wooden fortifications, which were replaced by a brick wall with a new entrance gate. From the starosty's inventories (1548, 1558) we learn that the castle at that time consisted of two gates, a drawbridge, the grand house and utility buildings: a granary, an armoury, a kitchen, a bathhouse and a brewery. A bakery and a gothic tower were situated some distance from the residential area.
PLAN OF THE CASTLE FROM THE END OF THE 16TH CENTURY: 1.GRAND HOUSE, 2. NORTHERN WING, 3. SOUTHERN WING,
4. FOUNDATIONS OF MEDIEVAL TOWER, 5. WESTERN BUILDING (ARCHIVE?), 6. DEFENSIVE WALL, 7. WELL
n the second half of the 16th century a southern and northern residential wings with a tower were erected, thanks to which the main part of the castle received a plan of the letter C opened from the west. These wings were demolished in the 19th and early 20th centuries by order of the Austrian authorities. Only the oldest grand house left, where the Renaissance character was erased by removal of decorative stonemasonry of doors and windows. The southern wing of the castle was reconstructed in 2010-13, but the concept of this reconstruction is far away from the original, stirring up strong feelings with its controversial form.
THE GRAND HOUSE IN 1936 AND TODAY (WITH CONTROVERSIAL SOUTHERN WING ADDED IN YEARS 2010-13)
he contemporary form of the castle is a result of wide-ranging reconstruction works carried out at the turn of the first and second decade of the 21st century. These works gave it partly a look referring to the Renaissance form from the mid-16th century and partly being a creation of architects' imagination. From the times of the last Jagiellons, the grand house has been preserved, in which the door portals and window stonemasonry have been reconstructed, as well as brick floors and wooden ceilings. In its western façade wooden stairs with a balcony have been built. On the foundations of the Gothic Piast tower, discovered in the northeastern part of the courtyard, a terrace was erected to view the San River valley and the northern part of the town.
FRAGMENT OF THE GRAND HOUSE WESTERN ELEVATION
nteriors of the castle houses the Historical Museum, in which apart from archaeological artifacts, militaria collections, sculpture and painting galleries, a valuable exhibition of Orthodox church art and the unique, largest collection of works by one of the most outstanding contemporary artists in the world, Zdzisław Beksiński, deserve special attention. In the cellars there is an
Armoury - exhibition presenting the development of armament starting from fragments of the Old Russian warriors' fighting kit discovered on the castle hill, armour of medieval knights and the seventeenth-century Polish hussars ride, as well as exhibits of cold steel and firearms. Among the shooting weapons, it is worth to focus on the iron
falconet-type cannon barrel, which, according to local tradition, was the spoil of war after winning the Battle of Chocim against the Turks in 1621. Brought to Sanok, it was stolen by peasant, transported to the village of Odrzechowa and then drowned in a pond because of fear of repression. After the serfdom was abolished, the cannon was taken out and placed in front of the church, where it was fired every Easter Sunday, and also served as a ...border post.
EXHIBITION OF ARMAMENTS IN THE CASTLE CELLARS
he exhibition also includes more contemporary weapons, such as 19th century flintlock and percussion pistols, rifles used by the municipal police at the turn of the 19th and 20th century and armaments from both world wars. Military insignia are also presented, of which particularly attention is drawn to
the badge of the 2nd Polish Podhale Rifle Regiment which is ...a swastika. The exhibition is complemented by a combat and observation shelter, which during the war was one of the points of the German line of fortifications on the then border with the Soviet Union.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR SHELTER
he exhibition of armaments is adjacent to an intimate
archaeological exhibition representing three prehistoric epochs and based primarily on findings discovered in the nearby villages of Bachórz, Trepcza and Prusiek, as well as in Sanok itself and in area of
ruins of the medieval castle Sobień. The stone age is represented here by, among others, mammoth teeth and the oldest creations of human hands: flint axes, hatchets, hoe and primitive multifunction tools. The Bronze Age artefacts come mainly from numerous 'treasures' hidden mostly in clay pots, containing simple kitchen tools, weapons and ornaments, including mysterious twists coming probably from the Balkan Peninsula. The presence of Celtic peoples and Vandals in the Subcarpathian region is documented in the part of exhibition dedicated to the Iron Age, where besides old armaments, fragments of glass vessels and jewellery, attention is drawn by a gold coin with images of the goddess Athena and Nike and a silver-gold coin dating back to the times of the Roman Empire. The exhibition is complemented by medieval antiquities, including lead seals of Kiev dukes, jewellery of Russian noblewomen, unique coins and crosses with a relic, which turned out to be a fragment of meteorite.
FRAGMENT EKSPOZYCJI ARCHEOLOGICZNEJ
he archaeological exhibition is contrasted with
Gallery of 20th Century Painting, also located in the castle cellars, the core of which is composed of paintings donated by Sanok artists
Franciszek and Maria Prochaska. Despite the fact that exposed works were made by famous artists such as
Tadeusz Makowski and
their artistry does not delight, and it can sometimes cause consternation or even embarrassment. It seems that the works presented within neighbouring the Marian Kruczek Gallery meet much fonder response. It consists mainly of remarkable sculptures and spatial compositions, made from old machine parts, gears, wire, shells, etc., found in junkyards or bought at flea markets, then shaped into fairytale and fantastic forms called kruczki.
GALERIA MARIANA KRUCZKA
he hall of the southern wing is filled with
collection of pokucka ceramics. Originating from Pokucie, a land in the Eastern Carpathians, semi-majolica products are characterized by multicolored decoration referring to plant, animal and geometric forms, often inspired by ancient and Tyrolean art. The most valuable item of this exposition is a 19th century tiled stove, belonging to the family of famous polish artist Xawery Dunikowski, with rich ornamentation showing scenes of everyday life. Ethnographic features can also be found in the northern chamber, in which the exhibition dedicated to
sacred art of Catholic Church presents fragments of decoration of the no longer existing St. Michael the Archangel Church, the oldest temple in Sanok. The attention is drawn here by numerous crucifixes with expressively sculpted images of Christ, a high-class sculpture of St. Nepomucen and sacred figures of various,
sometimes not very impressive artistic level, indicating the folk origin of many of them. This collection is complemented by Baroque sculptures which formerly belonged to Carmelite Monastery in Zagórz (now in ruins), as well as 17th-19th century crucifixes coming from Germany, Spain and France. A completely different style is characterized by the exhibition located in the Renaissance hall, dominated by portrait paintings, which in large part came here from the Załuski Palace in Iwonicz-Zdrój. A significant part of this collection is represented by paintings depicting members of the Załuski family, as well as other figures who lived or held various offices in the Sanok region. Among them the most valuable are the portrait of kinfg Jan III Sobieski and the 17th century image of
a girl with a fan
painted by the Dutch painter Gijsbert Sibilla.
THE SACRED ART OF CATHOLIC CHURCH
ORTHODOX CHURCH ART GALLERY
he Museum has one of the largest and most beautiful
collections of Orthodox church art in Poland. It consists of 1200 exhibits, which are arranged on two floors of the castle in such a way that they show the development of Orthodox and Greek Catholic painting and decorative art in chronological terms, from Middle Ages to the present day. An excellent
collection of icons and liturgical objects introduces us to the spiritual world of south-eastern Poland and Ukraine. Among many leading themes, dominates the figures of
Christ the Pantocrator, Christ in
Deesis group, characteristic
mandylions, as well as various images of Our Lady with her most popular image called
Hodegetria, Christmas icons called prazdniki, numerous
lives of saints and wonderful representations of
the Last Judgment. This unique exhibition is complemented by an
iconostasis - a wooden wall with three doors and rows of icons arranged in strict order, as well as a collection of crosses, old books and richly decorated liturgical robes.
ORTHODOX CHURCH ART GALLERY
owever, visiting an excellent collection of sacred art is only a foretaste of what awaits us in the attic of the Renaissance part and in the exhibition space of new southern wing, where since 2012
the gallery of works by one of the most intriguing contemporary artists Zdzisław Beksiński has been available to the public. The museum, as the only heir of the painter, murdered in 2005, possesses the largest collection of his works, many of which he personally chose to bequeath them to his hometown. The exhibition of over 600 works covers the whole period of Beksiński's artistic activity, beginning from
abstraction and the avant-garde, which characterized his drawings and sculptures in the early 1950s, until the turn of the centuries, when, fascinated by development of digital techniques, he experimented with modern forms of creative photography and
ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY
he core of the exhibition is, however, a collection of paintings representing the "fantastic" period of painter's creativity, presenting the most important works in his entire career. It began in the mid-1960s, when the first drawings and oil paintings were made, showing, in a depressing, pessimistic aura,
wounded figures, often causing anxiety or even horror. The evolution of demonic aesthetics took place in the early 70's with development of nightmarish vision of the world, although the author himself remembered years later that his goal was simply to paint pretty pictures. A symbolic closure of this collection is
the painting titled Y5, the last in Beksiński's output, completed on the day of his tragic death. Thanks to the donation, covering not only artistic achievements, but also computer equipment, bank deposits and private objects of everyday use,
a fragment of Beksiński's flat in Warsaw has been faithfully reconstructed in one of the museum rooms, including view the artist was looking through the window. The exhibition has been complemented by numerous photographs and multimedia shows presenting the profile of this great creator of contemporary art.
ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY, PAINTINGS REPRESENTING THE 'FANTASTIC' PERIOD OF THE ARTIST'S ACTIVITY
Zdzisław Beksiński was born on 24 February 1929 in Sanok, in a family associated with the town for several generations. His great-grandfather founded in the 1840s the Boiler Works, which later became a wagon-bus factory Autosan. His grandfather was a town architect. His father was a geometric engineer by profession.
Young Beksiński spent his childhood in Sanok, during the German occupation attending a trade school and later a high school. Shortly after the war, as a result of playing with unexploded bomb, he had an accident, in which he lost part of his thumb and forefinger. Fortunately, however, this tiny disability did not stand in the way of his artistic successes in the future. After completing the Faculty of Architecture at the Cracow University of Technology, he worked for several years in Cracow as a supervision inspector at socialist construction sites. In the second half of the 1950s he returned to his hometown, where he started working as a stylist at the Sanok Bus Factory. There he was involved in developing the style of prototype buses (SFW-1 Sanok, SFA-2, SFA-3, SFA-21) and their logotypes.
Zdzisław Beksiński was spending his free time realizing artistic passions, initially focusing on
abstract forms of sculpture and drawing and on
photography, which he quickly abandoned, however, looking for new, more adequate means of artistic expression. In the mid 1960s, he broke with the avant-garde, turning towards fantastic painting, most often realised on fibreboard with the use of oil paints. His first big success came in 1964, when during the Warsaw exhibition thirty of his works were sold in one day. However, the national and later world fame was only brought to him thanks to the paintings,
full of symbols, mysterious contents and catastrophic atmosphere, which characterised his work during the two decades of the 1970s and 1980s.
As a result of the Sanok authorities' decision to demolish the Beksiński's house, the artist decided to leave his home and moved with wife, mother, mother-in-law and son to a four-room flat in Warsaw, in which he also arranged
his studio. At that time he established cooperation with Piotr Dmochowski, who organized a number of author's exhibitions in Europe and Japan. For many years there was also a Beksiński gallery in Paris called Galerie Dmochowski Musée galerie de Beksiński. The beginning of the 90's was characterized by a resignation from fantastic painting and a focus on more subtle, less expressive forms. At that time, the first photocopier and computer appeared in Beksiński's house, opening the next stage of his artistic activity - computer graphics. This one, however, was based entirely on
photographic processing, never on making one's own drawings.
Zdzisław Beksiński was brutally murdered in his apartment on 21 February 2005, a few days before his 76th birthday. The murderer was a 19-year-old son of a woman working for the artist as a housewife, who was helped by his 16-year-old cousin. The motive for the crime was robbery. Before his death, Beksiński donated all his assets and artistic achievements to the Historical Museum in Sanok, which used them to organize an extensive retrospective of the artist's work in the castle, and thanks to the numerous private objects and equipment, it also familiarized with the artist himself.
In 1958, the only son of Zdzisław and Zofia Beksińscy was born,
Tomasz Beksiński - a columnist, translator of English (including film dialogues) and music presenter of the Polish national broadcasting station. From his youth he manifested an interest in death; evidence of his obsessive involvement in this subject was, for example, the fact that at the age of only 18 he hung his own obituaries in the streets of Sanok. Tomasz made several suicide attempts, including the last one, on Christmas Eve 1999, when he died after taking a significant amount of drugs. The tragic death of Zdzisław, his son's suicide, as well as his wife's serious illness in connection with the subject matter of the artist's work made the Beksiński family sometimes described as "cursed". Its Warsaw story has been presented in Jan P. Matuszyński's movie The Last Family with Andrzej Seweryn in the role of the brilliant creator.
ZDZISŁAW BEKSIŃSKI'S GALLERY, PAINTINGS REPRESENTING THE 'FANTASTIC' PERIOD OF THE ARTIST'S ACTIVITY
To visit the museum you need to buy a ticket.
Private photography - free. The use of a flash is not permitted.
The exhibits are very comprehensive. It takes at least 2 hours to watch them.
he castle is situated in the eastern part of the town, on a hill above the San River valley, 100 meters northeast of the Market Square. People travelling by train, after leaving Sanok station should follow Dworcowa street to the northwest, and then: Kolejowa street and Jagiellońska street as far as the Market Square.
The nearest car park is at the foot of the hill, at Zamkowa Street. However, during the season it fills up quickly, so it is worth considering as an alternative a much larger
car park at Łazienna Street, only 5 minutes' walk away from the museum.
You can ride your bike up to the castle. There you should secure it properly, because you leave it unattended.
1. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kołodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
2. P. Kocańda: Badania nad pierwszymi murowanymi zamkami na obszarze obecnego województwa podkarpackiego, Archeologie západních Čech 11 / 2016
3. A. B. Kutiak: Projektowanie w kontekście historycznym, kilka słów o sanockim wzgórzu zamkowym
4. Praca Zbiorowa: Zamek królewski w Sanoku, Muzeum Historyczne w Sanoku 2015
5. P. Strzyż: Nieznana lufa działa z Muzeum Historycznego w Sanoku
6. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019
THE CASTLE IN SANOK, VIEW FROM THE WEST AND FROM THE SOUTHWEST
Castles nearby: Zagórz - the ruin of fortified monastery from the 18th century, 9 km Załuż - the ruin of Sobień knights' castle from the 14th century, 11 km
Lesko - the private castle from the 16th century, 16 km