*** CASTLE IN 名IEBODZIN ***

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名IEBODZIN

the ruined ducal castle

CASTLE RUIN IN 名IEBODZIN, VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST

HISTORY OF THE CASTLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE

CURRENT STATE


T

he cas­tle in 安ie­bo­dzin is be­lieved to have been erect­ed at the end of the 13th or be­gin­ning of the 14th cen­tu­ry, per­haps at the same time that the vil­lage gained town rights. The first men­tion of the strong­hold dates back to 1329, list­ing ci­vi­tas ad cas­trum Swi­bzin as the prop­er­ty of Hen­ry IV, Duke of 畝­ga (d. 1342). From 1333, the town be­longed to the King­dom of Poland, but as ear­ly as 1335 it re­turned to the do­min­ion of the Duke of G這­g闚, and then be­came a fief­dom of King of Bo­he­mia Jan Lu­cem­bur­ský (d. 1346). When the Duchy of G這­g闚 was par­ti­tioned in 1378, 安ie­bo­dzin came un­der the 畝­ga dis­trict, and the cas­tle be­came the seat of the duke's wid­ows and an ad­min­is­tra­tive cen­ter for east­ern Bran­den­burg. In 1435-67 it be­longed to the Or­der of St. John and was pre­sum­ably ex­pand­ed dur­ing this pe­ri­od.




EASTERN ELEVATION OF THE CASTLE IN THE 1960S AND AT PRESENT


HISTORICAL NAMES OF THE TOWN

Schwi­bus­sen (1251), Swe­bo­sin (1302),
Swi­bzin (1329), Sve­bu­sin (1334),
Swe­be­sia (1352), Swe­bo­czyn (1352),
Swy­bu­schin (1698), Sin­wie­bu­sin (1744),
Schwie­bus (from 19th century to 1945)



SOUTH ELEVATION IN THE 1930S AND IN 2021

I

n 1506, the gov­er­nor of the Czech King in G這­g闚, Zyg­munt Jagiel­lo­czyk (lat­er Pol­ish King Zyg­munt the Old), gave the cas­tle as a pledge to Jo­hann von Nos­titz, and three years lat­er, his broth­er, King Vla­di­slav Ja­gel­lon­ský of Bo­he­mia, grant­ed it to Jo­hann and Wil­helm von Haug­witz. Af­ter 安iebodzin be­came part of the em­pire (1526), the cas­tle was ad­min­is­tered by Hab­s­burg-ap­point­ed dis­trict com­man­ders and sta­rosts, in­clud­ing dis­tin­guished rep­re­sen­ta­tives of the von Kno­bels­dorff fam­i­ly, suc­ces­sive­ly Se­bas­tian (d. 1568), Max­i­m­il­ian (d. 1609), Jo­hann Ge­org (d. 1637) and Ka­sper Sie­gis­mund (d. 1675). The most promi­nent of these, Max­i­m­il­ian, re­built the Goth­ic cas­tle in­to a Re­nais­sance man­sion at the end of the 16th cen­tu­ry. When he died in 1609, the right to the es­tate was giv­en to his son Jo­hann Ge­org, but un­til he came of age it was man­aged by Max­i­m­il­ian's wid­ow, Eva von Kno­bels­dorff de do­mo von Born­städt.



名IEBODZIN IN AN ENGRAVING FROM THE WORK OF GEORG BRAUN AND FRANS HOGENBERG
"CIVITATES ORBIS TERRARUM" (WORLD ATLAS 1572-1618), THE CASTLE IS ON THE LEFT

T

he lo­cal starosts at the time were con­sid­ered roy­al gov­er­nors, hold­ing supreme au­thor­i­ty not on­ly o­ver the town coun­cil, but al­so o­ver the ju­di­cia­ry and crafts­men's guilds. One of them, Ka­sper Sie­gis­mund Kno­bels­dorff, re­built the cas­tle, which had been de­stroyed dur­ing the Thir­ty Years' War. He was suc­ceed­ed in 1674 by Mar­shal Job­st Hil­mar von Knig­ge (who died in a du­el in 1683), fol­lowed by Im­pe­ri­al ober­leut­nant Franz Jobst. Two decades lat­er, Em­per­or Le­opold I leased the cas­tle and ad­join­ing es­tate to The­odor von Som­mer­feld, but changed his de­ci­sion four years lat­er, hand­ing them o­ver in ex­change for a loan of 31,000 guilders to the Cis­ter­cian nuns of Trzeb­ni­ca. From then on, the cas­tle grad­u­al­ly be­gan to lose its de­fen­sive char­ac­ter, be­com­ing the ad­min­is­tra­tive cen­ter of the Cis­ter­cian es­tate.



THE TOWN IN AN ENGRAVING BY FRIEDRICH BERNHARD WERNER FROM 1744-68, THE CASTLE IS ON THE RIGHT

I

n 1868, the then own­er of the cas­tle, Gus­tav Kram­man, an en­tre­pre­neur who was build­ing a rail­road from March to Gre­ater Poland, sold it to the town coun­cil, and the lat­ter gave the build­ing to the Bor­ro­mean nuns, who or­ga­nized a hos­pi­tal, a Catho­lic school and a kin­der­garten in it. In the in­ter­war pe­ri­od, the nuns erect­ed new wings of the hos­pi­tal build­ing, which oblit­er­at­ed the his­toric lay­out of the en­tire com­plex. Im­me­di­ate­ly af­ter the end of World War II, Car­i­tas op­er­at­ed in the for­mer cas­tle for a short pe­ri­od, and since 1946 the build­ing has housed an or­tho­pe­dic hos­pi­tal. At that time, the cas­tle wing in­clud­ing staff ac­co­mo­da­tion and the chapel was aban­doned and fell in­to ru­in. Al­though work was un­der­tak­en in 1984 to save the mon­u­ment, it was dis­con­tin­ued af­ter the fall of the com­mu­nist regime, and so far (2022) we have not lived to see its con­tin­u­a­tion.




名IEBODZIN CASTLE ON POSTCARDS FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY


HISTORY OF THE CASTLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE

CURRENT STATE


S

o far, no re­search has been car­ried out on the cas­tle in 安ie­bo­dzin to pro­vide a com­pre­hen­sive de­scrip­tion of its ap­pear­ance and spa­tial lay­out in me­dieval times. It is be­lieved that it orig­i­nal­ly con­sist­ed of one or two res­i­den­tial wings and a cy­lin­dri­cal stone tow­er lo­cat­ed in the south­east­ern part of the court­yard. The cas­tle was fenced off from the town by a wa­tered-in ditch con­nect­ed to a moat sur­round­ing the town wall, and the en­trance to it led from the south­west through a gate with a draw­bridge and a for­ti­fied farm-yard. The town's for­ti­fi­ca­tions were built on a rough­ly cir­cu­lar plan and re­in­forced with as many as fif­teen tow­ers, most of which opened from the in­side.



H. TARKA, TOWN PLAN COVERING ITS MEDIEVAL PART: 1. CASTLE, 2. HOSPITAL BUILDING ADDED IN THE XX CENTURY,
3. ST. MICHAEL CHURCH, 4. FORMER PARISH SCHOOL, 5. TOWN HALL, 6. NEO-GOTHIC CHURCH

I

n the sec­ond half of the 16th cen­tu­ry, the cas­tle was ex­pand­ed with a new res­i­den­tial wing, which gave the whole build­ing a horse­shoe shape, as can be seen in a 17th-cen­tu­ry draw­ing by Ge­org Braun. At the time, it con­sist­ed of build­ings grouped around two court­yards, flanked by three cylin­dri­cal tow­ers, and sur­round­ed by a moat o­ver which a bridge was spanned. The main en­trance led up a stair­case in a cov­ered, co­lumned porch. The res­i­den­tial wings in the up­per sto­ry may have been built as a half-tim­bered con­struc­tion, and were cov­ered with gabled roofs.



CASTLE AT THE TURN OF THE XVI AND XVII CENTURIES, EXCERPT FROM THE WORK OF GEORG BRAUN AND FRANS HOGENBERG
"CIVITATES ORBIS TERRARUM" (WORLD ATLAS 1572-1618)

A

f­ter the re­con­struc­tion caused by the dev­as­ta­tion of the Thir­ty Years' War, the cas­tle had on­ly one cyl­in­dri­cal tow­er, as ev­i­denced by Frie­drich Wern­er's en­grav­ing from the mid-18th cen­tu­ry. The dis­tinc­tive Lat­er­an cross formed from can­non­balls em­bed­ded in the walls prob­a­bly dates from this pe­ri­od. The build­ing for­mer­ly had a two-track in­te­ri­or lay­out, which was ob­lit­er­at­ed dur­ing the last re­mod­el­ing car­ried out here in the 1930s.



CASTLE IN AN ENGRAVING BY FRIEDRICH BERNHARD WERNER FROM 1744-68

A CROSS MADE OF CANNONBALLS EMBEDDED IN THE SOUTHERN ELEVATION (THE SECOND ONE IS IN THE EASTERN ELEVATION)


HISTORY OF THE CASTLE

DESCRIPTION OF THE CASTLE

CURRENT STATE


T

he cas­tle has sur­vived to the pre­sent day, al­though its ap­pear­ance has been se­vere­ly mod­i­fied o­ver the cen­turies and the orig­i­nal lay­out of the me­dieval strong­hold is dif­fi­cult to rec­og­nize nowa­days. Relics of the old­est foun­da­tion are lo­cat­ed in the east­ern part of the build­ings, which have been in­te­grat­ed in­to the mod­ernist ar­chi­tec­ture of the or­tho­pe­dic hos­pi­tal. Al­so par­tial­ly sur­viv­ing are the north­ern and south­ern sec­tions of the walls that sur­round the in­ner court­yard. The ar­eas of the for­mer farm-yard and moat to the north and east are now oc­cu­pied by a park. The his­toric part of the com­plex has been out of use and de­te­ri­o­rat­ing for many years. There are some plans (un­spec­i­fied) to re­con­struct it.


It is not al­lowed to en­ter the grounds of the for­mer cas­tle. We will al­so not en­ter the cas­tle park.


The cas­tle, or rather the hos­pi­tal, stands in a high­ly ur­ban­ized area. In ad­di­tion, it is a take­off and land­ing area for am­bu­lance he­li­cop­ters. For­mal­ly, how­ev­er, there is no ban on flights.



IN THE SUMMER, THE EAST WING IS HARDLY VISIBLE

PARK EAST OF THE CASTLE


GETTING THERE


T

he hos­pi­tal is lo­cat­ed about 200 me­ters east of Mar­ket Square, on Zam­kowa Street. Af­ter leav­ing the train sta­tion, head north on Grott­ge­ra Street and ㄠ­ki Zam­ko­we Street (800 m).



You can park your car in the tiny park­ing lot at the en­trance to the hos­pi­tal (ra­ther un­re­al­is­tic dur­ing busi­ness hours) or in one of the paid park­ing lots on Szpi­tal­na Street.


Bike racks are lo­cat­ed at the main en­trance to the hos­pi­tal.




BIBLIOGRAPHY


1. B. Bielinis-Kope: Zamki, dwory i pa豉ce wojew鏚ztwa lubuskiego, WUOZ w Zielonej G鏎ze 2008
2. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Ko這dziejski: Leksykon zamk闚 w Polsce, Arkady 2001
3. J. Kuczer: Szlachta jako dzier瘸wca d鏏r kr鏊ewskich w ksi瘰twie g這gowskim..., IPiA PWSZ 2007
4. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019
5. K. Wasilkiewicz: Templariusze i joannici w biskupstwie lubuskim, Instytut Kultury Europejskiej 2016



VIEW OF THE CASTLE AND HOSPITAL FROM THE SOUTHEAST, BEHIND THEM WE SEE ST. MICHAEL'S CHURCH


Castles nearby:
ζg闚 - the castle of the Hospitallers of Saint John from the 14th century, 21 km
Sulech闚 - the ducal castle from the 14th century, 21 km
Mi璠zyrzecz - the ruined royal castle from the 14th century, 27 km
Zb御zy - relics of a bastion castle from the 17th century, 36 km
Krosno Odrza雟kie - the ducal castle from 13th to 14th centuries, 42 km




WORTH SEEING:



Re­nais­sance town hall (200 m), re­built in the 19th cen­tu­ry, with an orig­i­nal tow­er topped with a crenel­la­tion. Cross-ribbed and star vaults have been pre­served in the base­ment of the town hall and in sev­er­al rooms on its first floor. The build­ing cur­rent­ly hous­es the Re­gion­al Mu­se­um, the Reg­istry and Civ­il Af­fairs Of­fice, and the of­fices of the Town Coun­cil.





Late Goth­ic, four-nave parish church of St. Michael from the 15th cen­tu­ry. In­side, valu­able fur­nish­ings have been pre­served: a Goth­ic trip­tych of St. Anne in the main al­tar, as well as a Ro­co­co al­tar of the Blessed Vir­gin Mary. An un­usu­al and unique fea­ture of the church is its pro­por­tions. This is be­cause it is wider than it is longer (27x31 m). The tem­ple stands on Szpi­tal­na Street (200 m).





A mod­est but his­toric parish school from the ear­ly 17th cen­tu­ry. Rem­nants of late Goth­ic vaults, once prob­a­bly pre­sent in all rooms, have been pre­served to this day in its hall­way. The cur­rent ap­pear­ance of the build­ing was formed dur­ing a ma­jor re­con­struc­tion car­ried out in the sec­ond half of the 19th cen­tu­ry. The parish school stands on Szpi­tal­na Street, op­po­site St. Mi­chael's Church (200 m). The photo on the left shows the build­ing be­fore its re­no­vation.





Re­mains of town for­ti­fi­ca­tions from the 14th-16th cen­turies (150 m). In the Mid­dle Ages the en­tire town was sur­round­ed by walls sup­port­ed with twelve tow­ers and three gates. Seg­ments of the stone walls, three tow­ers and relics of the moat have sur­vived to the pre­sent day.





The stat­ue of Christ the King (2.2 km) is sim­i­lar to the Cri­sto Re­den­tor in Rio de Ja­ne­iro, but a bit tal­ler than it. It is 33 me­ters tall (with­out the pe­de­stal), mak­ing it the tallest Je­sus in the world. It is now one of the prov­ince's big­gest at­trac­tions, al­though for many it is al­so a sym­bol of idol­a­try and hu­man stu­pid­i­ty.





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text: 2022
photographs: 2008, 2019, 2021
© Jacek Bednarek