he oldest Teutonic fortification in the area was a wooden watchtower called Sankt Marienwerder or Insula Sancte Marie, founded in the vicinity of present-day Nowa Wieś Kwidzyńska shortly after the Teutonic Knights began their crusades against pagans in Pomezania (1233). However, these fortifications were not impressive and already in 1242 the Prussian troops destroyed them. Not long afterwards, the Teutonic Knights built a new brick castle named Altschlösschen, which from then on served as the bishop's residence. This relatively small building with three towers successfully repelled the attacks of the Prussians during the subsequent uprisings in 1263 and 1277. It was destroyed only in 1520 by Polish artillery. Soon after, the authorities ordered it to be demolished, and the materials obtained from it were used to repair the chapter castle and other buildings in the town. Today, the existence of this castle is confirmed only by the name of the street running next to the former moat, i.e. Starozamkowa Street (the Old Castle Street).
A SPECULATIVE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE BISHOP'S CASTLE, NAMED ALTSCHLÖSSCHEN
ORIGIN: R.SYPEK "ZAMKI I OBIEKTY WAROWNE PAŃSTWA KRZYŻACKIEGO"
The Pomezanian diocese was established by the papal legate
Guglielmo de Savoy on 28 July 1243, with the support and consent of Pope
Innocent IV. The borders of the new bishopric were marked by the rivers Osa, Wisła, Pasłęka, and Lake Drużno, and the cathedral in Kwidzyn became its most important church.
The Kwidzyn diocese consisted of smaller organizational units called deaneries, of which there were 16 at the beginning of the 15th century, and parishes, of which there were 235 at the same time. The end of its existence in the Catholic rite came with the rapid development of Protestantism in the first half of the 16th century, triggered by the decision of the Grand Master of the Order
Albrecht von Hohenzollern (d. 1568) to secularize the Teutonic state and convert to Lutheranism.
Currently, the traditions of the Pomezanian diocese are continued by the Elbląg diocese, the vast majority of whose territory includes lands belonging to the former Pomezanian bishopric. Among the most historically important churches in this area are the magnificent Gothic cathedrals in Kwidzyn and Prabuty.
CHURCH OF THE HOLY MAIDEN AND JAN EVANGELIST (FORMER KWIDZYN CATHEDRAL) IN THE 1950S AND TODAY
fter the first cathedral chapter was constituted in 1284, the question arose of establishing a worthy seat for them. The small castle of the Pomezanian bishops (Altschlösschen) did not fulfil these functions adequately, and so still at the end of the 13th century the construction of a second, much larger castle began. It was situated in the northern part of the town, on the high bank of the Vistula valley. It was built up in stages. Probably around 1340 the eastern wing, the oldest of the four castle wings, already existed. Although the architect of the new fortress and its creator remain unknown, written sources from 1342 mention a certain brother Rupertus, who was to act as a murorum magister, i.e. a master mason while constructing the Kwidzyn Cathedral. So perhaps the same Rupertus directed the work on the castle, being after all part of a large castle-cathedral complex.
RECONSTRUCTION OF THE CASTLE AND CATHEDRAL FROM AROUND 1390 ACCORDING TO
"DIE BAU- UND KUNSTDENKMALER DES KREISES MARIENWERDER OSTLICH DER WEICHSEL", 1898
he other castle wings and the tower were probably built in 1340-55, when Bishop Arnold ruled the diocese. In the second half of the 14th century, the castle and cathedral were joined, which was certainly dictated by defensive reasons and the convenience of the canons, but probably also had an ideological significance as a symbolic link between secular and spiritual authority. In the 80s of the same century, a huge latrine tower with an arcaded porch rose from the west, and a well tower and a spacious farmyard were incorporated into the castle area. Then a unique architectural complex with two castles (bishop's and chapter's), a cathedral and a town was formed in Kwidzyn. The northern (newer) castle served from then on as the seat of the Pomezanian chapter, being a regional religious and political-administrative center.
LOCATION PLAN OF THE TOWN AT THE END OF THE XIV CENTURY: 1. BISHOPS' CASTLE, 2. CHAPTER CASTLE, 3. CATHEDRAL, 4. FARMYARD, 5. MARKET SQUARE, 6. TOWN WALLS
n September 19, 1410 the troops of Polish king
Władysław II Jagiełło entered the castle on their way back from unsuccessful expedition to Malbork. This time the "visit" had a ceremonial character, as Jagiełło was treated as a guest by the chapter. During his brief stay in Kwidzyn, he visited, among others, the cell of Blessed Dorothy of Mątwy, an ascetic and mystic, who had ordered to be walled up in the cathedral, where she died in 1394. The Poles returned to Kwidzyn four years later, this time for war purposes. They captured the town then and burned it down, but did not attempt to conquer the castle due to lack of necessary equipment. After the outbreak of anti-Teutonic uprising in 1454, Bishop Kaspar Linke (d. 1463) first supported the Prussian Union, but as a result of the defeat of Polish forces at the Battle of Chojnice, he changed his political orientation, placing the castle under Teutonic Knights' command. From then on, until the end of the war, the Order carried out offensive campaigns from here, taking part in retaliatory and plundering expeditions to Chełmno Land (1455) and Dobrzyń Land (1458). The castle was also used to blockade and control navigation on the Vistula and land routes into Prussia.
MEDIEVAL TOWN WALLS, IN THE BACKGROUND WE CAN SEE THE WESTERN WING OF THE CASTLE AND THE DANSKER
n September 1460 the Polish army commanded by Andrzej Puszkarz, burgrave from Świecie, invaded Kwidzyn. The Poles captured both castles and the cathedral, in which the survivors of the Teutonic Knights were hiding, and which suffered heavily during the attempt to recapture it. However, they did not decide to garrison the gained strongholds and after plundering the town, they left. Based on the Toruń Peace Treaty from 1466, Kwidzyn, as well as the episcopal dominion, was granted to the Teutonic Knights, while the Pomezanian bishopric came under the administration of Polish Bishop Wincenty Gosławski. After his death in 1478 the Order wanted to impose its candidate for the office, which led to the intervention of Polish troops remembered by history as the War of the Priests. Most probably, at that time, as a result of the shelling, the castle towers and the cathedral walls were damaged, also the vault of the crypt collapsed. Bishop Jan IV von Lassen soon undertook to repaire the damage, except for the castle towers, which were demolished.
TOWN PANORAMA FROM 1595 BY C. HENNEBERGER
uring the last Polish-Teutonic war in 1520, Polish artillery seriously damaged the cathedral chapel of Blessed Dorothy and the structure of the chapter castle, and destroyed the old bishop's castle. The last Teutonic bishop of Pomezania was Erhard von Queis (d. 1529), who three years later abolished the Catholic bishopric. Due to the very poor condition of the old castle, his Protestant successor Paulus Speratus moved the seat of the bishops to the chapter castle, where he repaired at his own expense the damage caused by the shelling (using one hundred thousand bricks obtained from the old castle), and changed the decoration of the cathedral to a more modest one, in accordance with the strict doctrine of the new faith. When the bishop died in 1551, the castle building passed into the hands of Duke
Albrecht von Hohenzollern (d. 1568) and was later adapted for housing officers and officials of the ducal administration. In 1586, a member of the town council, Antonius Trost, erected a late-Romanesque narthex from Gotland limestone in the south aisle of the cathedral, next to the main entrance. The building material he obtained from the ruined old Bishop's castle.
XVI-CENTURY NARTHEX BUILT OF STONE OBTAINED FROM THE BISHOP'S CASTLE
n 1658 the castle was shelled by Swedish artillery for ten days, but it managed to withstand the siege despite being severely damaged. After reconstruction it became the seat of Prussian administration, also served as a royal residence and an important junction on the postal route from Königsberg to Berlin. It was here that in 1709 King
Friedrich I of Prussia (d. 1713) met with Russian Tsar
Peter the Great (d. 1725). The rulers stayed at the castle for over a week, and their presence was accompanied by political meetings between high officials of both countries.
THE CASTLE IN A. BOOT'S ENGRAVING OF 1627
PANORAMA OF THE TOWN, 1700
oon after these events, the castle began to lose its importance, and its stature declined to that of a provincial office. In 1728, the south wing of the castle became a grain warehouse for the military garrison, and shortly thereafter workers demolished part of the cloisters. Further devastation of the castle was done by the Russians stationing in Kwidzyn in the years 1758-62. From that time comes the so-called Fermor's Palace, built in the former farmyard area for
Víllim Víllimovich Fermor (d. 1771), general-in-chief of the Imperial Russian Army and commander of the troops occupying the town during the Seven Years' War. A year after his death, the court office moved into the castle, which, despite some administrative changes, operated here until 1935. To this purpose, some works were carried out, which consisted, among other things, in making a new division of the interiors, building a new staircase, and adapting the castle courtyard into a prison.
FERMOR'S PALACE BUILT IN THE FORMER FARMYARD
fter 1798 the southern and eastern wings were demolished and the materials thus obtained were used to erect the Kwidzyn Land Court building, also known as
the Palace of Justice. The cost of dismantling these parts of the stronghold far exceeded the cost of buying new bricks, and perhaps this fact saved the former chapter castle from total destruction. In the preserved wings in the first half of the 19th century the town authorities organized, among others, an institution for the blind and a craft school. In this period, the well tower was rebuilt and the upper floors of the northern wing were adapted for new prison cells. There were also plans to build a new storey for administration purposes, but this idea did not gain acceptance and was abandoned.
LITHOGRAPH BY EDUARD PIEZSCH, 1839
WOODCUT FROM THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIXTH CENTURY
espite the fact that already in the early 19th century the castle was considered a monument of German architecture, the lack of funds for current maintenance caused it to fall into increasing neglect. It was not until 1854 that King
Friedrich Wilhelm IV (d. 1861), at the request of the director of the court named Wetzke, ordered to take measures aimed at saving this historic building. To this end, work began that in the first stage (1854-62) included the enlargement of window openings, the construction of a new staircase and the restoration of the western and northern cloisters. After 1873, the gables of the corner towers were re-erected, the latrine tower received a new roof, and the exterior facades got decorative Gothic motifs. Some of the castle rooms obtained
and architectural details taken from the demolished wings. The total cost of these works exceeded 40 thousand thalers.
THE CASTLE ON THE PHOTOS FROM THE END OF THE XIXTH CENTURY (ABOVE) AND FROM THE 1930S
n the interwar period a small Heimatmuseum Westpreussen operated in the castle. From 1937 until the end of World War II, Hitlerjugend HJ-Ostlandführerschul was also located here. During the offensive of the Red Army in January 1945, the castle-cathedral complex, unlike the Old Town, did not suffer serious damage, although the Soviets demolished its interiors and stole equipment. In 1949, the building went under the administration of the Ministry of Culture and Art, and a year later the Polish museum opened here. Since 1973 the museum in Kwidzyn is a branch of the Castle Museum in Malbork.
THIS IS HOW THE PERSPECTIVE ON THE CASTLE-CATHEDRAL COMPLEX FROM THE SOUTH CHANGED AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
ON THE PICTURES FROM THE TOP: 1915 - WESTERN FRONTAGE OF THE MARKET SQUARE, 2015 - HOLE IN THE GROUND (TENEMENT HOUSES WERE DEMOLISHED AFTER THE WAR), 2021 - NEW TENEMENT HOUSES IN THE WESTERN FRONTAGE
he Gothic castle was built of brick, on a plan similar to a square with dimensions of about 49x50 meters. It consisted of four wings enclosing a rectangular courtyard, with internal side dimensions of about 12x16 meters, and with storied galleries. The south-east and south-west wings were probably four storeys high, while the others were five storeys high, all with basements. The oldest of them (no longer extant) - the south-east wing, called nova curia nostra in Teutonic Knights' times - housed the infirmary on the second floor, and the provost's apartment, to which a small room adjoined, identified today as the chapter's archive and treasury. The representative functions in the castle were performed by the south-west wing, also not preserved. Its second storey was occupied by two large chambers: a four-bay chapterhouse and a five-bay summer refectory illuminated by huge windows. Both of these halls were covered with a cross-ribbed vault supported by granite columns with carved capitals.
VIEW OF THE CASTLE FROM THE SOUTHEAST
RECONSTRUCTED CLOISTERS IN THE COURTYARD, IN THE BACKGROUND WE CAN SEE
THE TRACES OF THE DEMOLISHED SOUTHEASTERN WING
he entrance to the castle courtyard led from the north-eastern side through a gate, above which there was a chapel covered with a four-armed stellar vault. Next to it, a winter refectory was situated. The walls and vaults of these chambers were richly decorated with paintings; the rooms also had floor heating. The second storey of the north-west wing housed dormitories, which were first organised in one huge hall and from the 15th century consisted of individual cells. This is also where the passage to the dansker led. The ground floor and cellars were used for household purposes: there were stoves for heating the chambers, two kitchens, a bakery, storehouses, pantries, guard chambers and a prison. The upper floors of the castle housed a library, living quarters for the clergy, and quarters for students of the cathedral school. On the top floor, in the thickness of the outer wall, there were porches with loopholes enabling the firing of both the front of the castle and its courtyard. There were also granaries, and possibly weapon stores.
PLAN OF THE SECOND FLOOR, PRESENT STATE: 1. TREASURY, 2. PROVOST'S CHAMBER, 3. CHAPEL, 4. WINTER REFECTORY,
5. DORMITORIES, 6. MAIN GATE, 7. DANSKER, 8. WELL TOWER, 9. MAIN TOWER
NORTH-EAST WING WITH THE MAIN GATE AND WELL TOWER
he castle had three slender corner turrets and a massive 59-meter-high bell tower. This tower was over 20 meters higher than the castle buildings and its crenellated top served not only as an observation point but also as a platform for sending light signals to the castles in Nowe and
Gniew. In the second half of the fourteenth century, a massive sanitary tower, called dansker, was built about 60 meters from the northwest wing, and connected to it by a huge Gothic porch supported by five high arcades. In the Middle Ages a stream flowed under the sanitary tower, carrying away the waste. In the 19th century, the tower housed prison cells, and a prison yard functioned under its arcades. Prisoners were led to their cells by external stairs, built so as not to have to lead the convicts through the administrative part of the castle.
XIXTH-CENTURY EXTERNAL STAIRS USED FOR TRANSPORTING PRISONERS TO CELLS LOCATED IN THE DANSKER
DANSKER IN KWIDZYN, REPORTEDLY THE LARGEST LATRINE IN THE WORLD
n the second half of the 14th century, a well tower, called aquaductos, was erected. This building, as its name suggests, housed a well supplying water to the castle's staff (until the end of the 18th century), it also performed fortification functions by flanking the drawbridge crossing. The castle was defended from the west by a low curtain wall and a high escarpment, and from the north by a curtain wall and a wide moat, behind which a farm yard extended. Farm buildings (stables, barns, coach houses, pigsties), dwellings for servants and brawlers were placed there. The only way of communication between the farm yard and the outside world constituted a bridge connecting it with the castle, which proves that the area belonged strictly to the chapter.
AT THE FOOT OF THE WELL TOWER
VIEW FROM THE FORMER FARM YARD TO THE WELL AND LATRINE TOWERS
etween 1330 and 1380 a massive church was erected east of the castle, which received the rank of cathedral in the early 15th century. Its construction began on the chancel (southeast) side and continued until it was connected to the northeast wing of the castle. It is a three-nave building, consisting of a two-storey choir and an elongated five-bay hall, with the main nave covered by an eight-armed stellar vault and the side naves - by tripartite vaults. On the south-west side of the temple stands a monumental bell tower, which years ago also served as a castle tower. Two smaller octagonal turrets flank the chancel and serve to communicate with the attic and defensive porches routed around the cathedral in its top floor.
PLAN OF THE CASTLE AND THE CATHEDRAL: 1. PRESERVED WINGS OF THE CASTLE, 2. DANSKER, 3. WELL TOWER, 4. MAIN TOWER,
5. MAIN NAVE OF THE CATHEDRAL, 6. CHANCEL, 7. OCTAGONAL TURRETS, 8. XVI-CENTURY NARTHEX
VIEW OF THE CASTLE AND CATHEDRAL COMPLEX FROM THE NORTH-EAST,
EARLY 20TH CENTURY DRAWING (THE CASTLE WITH NO CORNER TURRETS)
hen in 1526 the Catholic bishopric of Pomezania was liquidated, the church lost its previous administrative rank, and its interior was deprived of most of its previous decorations. Changes were also made in the spatial arrangement of the temple, separating its interior with a wall into prayer spaces designated for the German (in the main nave), Polish (in the chancel) and Czech community (in the western nave). In later years, the church received a narthex at the main entrance, built of Gotland sandstone, probably obtained from the demolished bishop's castle (1586), and a burial chapel of
Otto Friedrich von Gröben, the famous corsair, voyager and general of the Polish army (d. 1728). In 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars, the church served as a food warehouse and an exercise hall, which led to its devastation. The thorough modernization was not carried out here until the 1860s, as part of a large-scale re-gothicization of the entire castle-cathedral complex. After World War II the temple belonged to the Franciscans, and since 1993 it has been administered by diocesan priests.
VIEW OF THE FORMER CATHEDRAL FROM THE CHANCEL SIDE
he former cathedral, two wings of the castle with corner turrets, bell tower, well tower and sanitary tower have been preserved in good condition to the present day. The Gothic cloisters have survived only fragmentarily, and what we see now is largely the result of 19th-century reconstruction, although original medieval details can be found within their walls. The castle in Kwidzyn is currently one of the most impressive examples of fortified Gothic architecture in northern Poland, and its unique character results not only from its very good conservation status, but also, or perhaps above all, from the exceptionally rare combination of a stronghold and a huge temple into one organism.
PRESERVED CASTLE WINGS WITH CLOISTERS (WHICH ARE RECONSTRUCTED)
ON THE SITE OF THE SOUTHWEST WING THERE ARE TWO HEAVY BELGIAN CANNONS FROM 1861 AND 1863, WHICH WERE TAKEN DURING THE FRENCH-PRUSSIAN WAR AND THEN PLACED HERE AS A SYMBOL OF PRUSSIAN MILITARY SUPERIORITY
he castle is home to a branch of the Castle Museum in Malbork, which presents historical memorabilia of the town and region, as well as objects of cultural and natural heritage related to Powiśle. It includes five sections: arts and crafts, archaeology, ethnography, history, and nature. The Gothic cellars of the stronghold house an archeological exhibition, presenting simple tools from the Neolithic period, as well as articles of daily use found during the excavations, carried out on the site of townhouses destroyed during the war. Here we can also see the torture and punishment equipment coming from the torture chamber that once operated in the town hall. Particularly noteworthy is the original
18th century torture chest, which was used as part of the scenery in the legendary polish film Krzyżacy (Teutonic Knights) by Aleksander Ford (1960).
IN THE GOTHIC CASTLE CELLARS
hen we go up to the second floor and through the covered porch we reach the well tower, which centuries ago protected
the well from which good quality drinking water was supplied to the castle. In the 19th century, the well was bricked up and from then on the interior of the tower served as prison cells and (after 1945) as museum offices. Now it is empty, but undoubtedly worth seeing. Next we go to the dormitory, the largest chamber in the castle, which after the 19th century reconstruction used to be a representative assembly hall, and in the 1930s and 1940s served as a refectory for the Hitlerjugend school. Currently,
temporary exhibitions are organized here.
AT THE CASTLE WELL
n the west wall of the dormitory there is the entrance to the dansker, humorously called the largest latrine in the world. The cross-ribbed vault, the opening for the waste disposal and the storage room have been preserved in the sanitary tower. Its long, five-arcaded porch houses an ethnographic exhibition of the art and material culture of the Lower Vistula land, mostly taken over from the German Heimatmuseum Westpreussen, or acquired from settlers coming to this region from other parts of Poland and from the Eastern Borderlands. This exhibition is complemented by a collection of old fishing equipment located in the tower.
ETHNOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION IN THE PORCH LEADING TO DANSKER
he cloisters have been almost entirely reconstructed. Only fragments of 14th century floral decoration and multicoloured polychrome have been preserved here. They lead to the former winter dining room called the winter refectory, covered with a
Gothic vault supported by one column. Currently, this chamber houses an exhibition of paintings and handcrafts.
CLOISTERS AT THE CASTLE IN KWIDZYN
djacent to the winter refectory is a two-bay chapel covered with an original stellar vault, where Gothic paintings and fragments of architectural ornamentation have been preserved. From here we move on to a spacious chamber, which probably housed the apartment of the provost (chairman of the chapter). The apartment was connected to a small room where
the treasury and the archive were probably located. Today, the former dwelling of the provost is used as a space for
exhibitions on the history of Kwidzyn and its inhabitants.
he premises of the third floor of the castle are devoid of decorations and elements characteristic of Medieval architecture, and their Gothic past is only evidenced by the masquerade windows. This storey is occupied entirely by an exhibition titled Nature of Northern Poland, which includes the collection of native fauna and flora, consisting of over 1500 exhibits. Unfortunately, this may be a sad experience for some people, as the exhibit consists mostly of
stuffed animals, although the authors of the exposition undoubtedly put a lot of effort into carefully preparing and sounding out scenery that reflects the natural habitats of these creatures. The nature exhibition is complemented by botanical collections, a collection of insects, and a very interesting
paleontological presentation with the remains of a mammoth, an aurochs, a Greenland whale, and even a fossilized
NATURE OF NORTHERN POLAND
Tickets are required for entry to the castle. It is possible to rent audio guides.
It takes about 1.5 hours to visit all exhibitions.
There is permission to photograph the interior.
However, there is no permission to bring animals into the castle.
Situation of the castle on the edge of the urban complex is favourable for sky photography. We have a lot of space on the west side and partly on the south side, because there is only a field and green areas there.
A POTENTIALLY GRUESOME SCENE WITH A COCK AND AN AXE
t is also worth visiting the former cathedral of the Pomezanian chapter (today the church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and John the Evangelist), which hides in its interior
the Gothic paintings from the early sixteenth century depicting life-size figures of 17 Pomezanian bishops and three masters of the Teutonic Order buried here. At the entrance to the temple, there are tombstones of bishops, parish priests and knights, as well as
the only medieval mosaic painting in Poland, dated 1380, depicting the martyrdom of St. John the Evangelist (according to tradition, he was boiled in oil) and Bishop John I Mönch kneeling next to him. In addition, the church furnishings include a magnificent oak bishop's throne from 1504, Renaissance epitaphs,
the burial chapel of Otto Friedrich von Gröben, and colorful Baroque Evangelical confessionals.
THE MAIN NAVE AND ONE OF THE SIDE NAVES OF THE CHURCH (THE FORMER CATHEDRAL)
In 2006, the graves of three top Teutonic dignitaries were found in the crypt under the cathedral's chancel. Research has shown that these are the remains of Grand Masters: Werner von Olsen (d. 1330), who was stabbed with a dagger by one of the Order's knights, Ludolf König von Wattzau (d. 1348), who was removed from his office due to a mental disease, and Heinrich von Plauen (d. 1429), who rendered meritorious service to the Order but was also accused of making deals with the Poles. It was probably decided that those people did not deserve to be buried in the Crypt of Grand Masters in Malbork and they were placed in pine coffins here, in the cathedral in Kwidzyn. The modesty of the coffins contrasts with the rich silk robes in which the dead were clothed.
Currently, in the place where the graves were discovered, you can see an exhibition devoted to the research and its results. A slide in the floor allows us to look inside the crypts.
he castle is located slightly north of the old Market Square, on Katedralna Street. If you travel by train, when leaving the train station you should head west on Chopin Street and then north on Targowa Street. The walk to the castle takes about 15 minutes.
A few dozen meters north of the castle there is a large parking lot on Katedralna Street, opposite the Fermona Palace (free, 2022).
In 2015, it was possible to bring bicycles into the castle courtyard.
1. L. Adamczewski: Grób mistrzów krzyżackich, Głos Wielkopolski 15.03.2008
2. J. Bieszk: Zamki państwa krzyżackiego w Polsce, Bellona
3. M. Garniec, M. Jackiewicz-Garniec: Zamki państwa krzyżackiego w dawnych Prusach, studio Arta 2009
4. M. Grupa, T. Kozłowski: Katedra w Kwidzynie – tajemnica krypt, Kwidzyńskie Centrum Kultury 2009
5. L. Kajzer, J. Salm, S. Kołodziejski: Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Arkady 2001
6. Praca zbiorowa: Zamek i katedra w Kwidzynie, Foto Liner
7. M. Prarat, K. Zimna-Kawecka: Konserwatorskie i społeczne aspekty ochrony ruin zamków na terenie państwa zakonu krzyżackiego w Prusach do połowy XX w.
8. R. Sypek: Zamki i obiekty warowne Państwa Krzyżackiego, Agencja CB 2000
9. A. Wagner: Murowane budowle obronne w Polsce X-XVIIw., Bellona 2019
10.P. Zaniewski: Szlakami zamków krzyżackich, MUZA S.A. 2005
Castles nearby: Gniew - the Teutonic castle from the 13th/14th century, 21 km Prabuty - relics of the Pomezanian bishops' castle from the 13th century, 21 km Sztum - the Teutonic castle from the 14th century, 25 km
Nowe - relics of the Teutonic castle from the 14th century, 28 km
Rogoźno - ruins of the Teutonic castle from the 13th/14th century, 32 km Grudziądz - relics of the Teutonic castle from the 13th century, 36 km Malbork - the castle of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights from the 13th/14th century, 39 km Pokrzywno - ruins of the Teutonic castle from the 13th century, 43 km Dzierzgoń - relics of the Teutonic castle from the 13th century, 46 km
Przezmark - ruins of the Teutonic castle from the 14th century, 49 km Radzyń Chełmiński - ruins of the Teutonic castle from the 13th century, 50 km